Tag Archives: WIKIPEDIA : THROAT SINGING

WIKIPEDIA : THROAT SINGING

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Throat singing

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Throat singing refers to several vocal practices found in different cultures around the world.[1][2][3][4] The most common feature of such vocal sounds is producing the sensation of more than one pitch at a time, i.e., the listener perceives two or more distinct musical notes when the singer is producing a single vocalization. Throat singing, therefore, consists of a wide range of singing techniques that originally belong to some particular cultures and seem to share some sounding characteristics that make them especially noticeable by other cultures and users of mainstream singing styles.[5][6][7][8][9] Probably, the term originates from the translation of the Mongolian word Xhöömei , that literally means throat.[10]

The term is not precise, because any singing technique involves the sound generation in the “throat”, i.e., the voice produced at the level of the larynx, which includes the vocal folds and other structures.[7][11][12][9] Therefore it would be, in principle, admissible to refer to classical operatic singing or pop singing as “throat singing” for instance. However, the term throat is not adopted by the official terminology of anatomy and is not technically associated with most of the singing techniques. Furthermore, “singing with the throat” may be a demeaning expression for many individuals and communities of singers, because it may imply that the singer is using a high effort for voice production, resulting in a rather forced or non-suitable voice. In spite of being a term frequently used in the literature starting in the 1960’s, some contemporary scholars tend to avoid the use of throat singing as a general term.

Throat singing techniques may be classified under (1) an ethnomusicological approach: considering the various cultural aspects, the association to rituals, religious practices, storytelling, labor songs, vocal games, and other contexts; (2) a musical approach: considering their artistic use, the basic acoustical principles, and the physiological and mechanical procedures to learn, train and produce them.

Contents

Types of throat singing

The most commonly referred types of throat singing techniques, present in musicological and ethnomusicological texts, are generally associated with ancient cultures:

  • Tuvan throat singing, a form of singing, comprising several techniques, practiced in the Republic of Tuva, belonging to the Russian federation.[13][14][15][1]
  • Mongolian throat singing, a form of singing, comprising several techniques, practiced in Mongolia[16][2]
  • Buddhist chant, found in some monasteries in India (Tibetan exiled communities) and Tibet, sometimes involving vocal-ventricular phonation, i.e., combined vibrations of the (true) vocal folds and the (false) ventricular folds, achieving very low pitches.[17][2][18]
  • Inuit throat singing, the kind of duet as an entertaining contest, practiced by the aboriginal Inuit cultures in Canada (formerly called Eskimos) and other territories in the Arctic Circle[19]
  • Rekuhkara, formerly practiced by the Ainu ethnic group of Hokkaidō Island, Japan[20]
  • Cantu a tenore, or Sardinian throat singing, found in the Italian Island of the same name.[21]

In musically related terms, throat singing refers among others, to the following specific techniques:

  • Overtone singing, also known as overtone chanting, or harmonic singing. This is the singing style more commonly associated with throat singing.[22][23][24]
  • Undertone singing[25] i.e., techniques that comprise subharmonics, generated by the combined vibrations of parts of the singing apparatus at a certain frequency and frequencies that correspond to integer divisions of such frequency, such as 1:2, 1:3, and 1:4 ratios.[8]
  • Diplophonic voice, i.e., techniques that consist of parts of the singing apparatus vibrating at non-integer ratios, are usually regarded as associated with pathological processes – see diplophonia.[26]
  • Growling voice – consists of a technique of growling, which employs structures of the vocal apparatus located above the larynx, vibrating at the same time as the vocal folds, particularly the aryepiglottic folds.[27]
  • Vocal Fry,[28] a technique associated to vocal fry register.

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See also

External links

Look up throat singing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

References

Aksenov, A. N. (1973). “Tuvin Folk Music”. Asian Music. 4 (2): 7–18. doi:10.2307/833827. JSTOR833827. Lindestad, P. A.; Södersten, M.; Merker, B.; Granqvist, S. (2001). “Voice source characteristics in Mongolian “throat singing” studied with high-speed imaging technique, acoustic spectra, and inverse filtering”. Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation. 15 (1): 78–85. doi:10.1016/S0892-1997(01)00008-X. ISSN0892-1997. PMID12269637. Kob, Malte; Henrich, Nathalie; Herzel, Hanspeter; Howard, David; Tokuda, Isao; Wolfe, Joe (2011-09-01). “Analysing and Understanding the Singing Voice: Recent Progress and Open Questions”. Current Bioinformatics. 6 (3): 362–374. doi:10.2174/157489311796904709. ISSN1574-8936. Sundberg, Johan (2015). Die Wissenschaft von der Singstimme. Wissner-Verlag. ISBN978-3-89639-959-5. OCLC1001652162. Story, Brad (2019-04-11), Welch, Graham F.; Howard, David M.; Nix, John (eds.), “The Vocal Tract in Singing”, The Oxford Handbook of Singing, Oxford University Press, pp. 144–166, doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199660773.013.012, ISBN978-0-19-966077-3, retrieved 2021-10-01 Mergell, Patrick; Herzel, Hanspeter (1997). “Modelling biphonation — The role of the vocal tract”. Speech Communication. 22 (2–3): 141–154. doi:10.1016/S0167-6393(97)00016-2. Lindblom, B. E.; Sundberg, J. E. (1971). “Acoustical consequences of lip, tongue, jaw, and larynx movement”. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 50 (4): 1166–1179. doi:10.1121/1.1912750. ISSN0001-4966. PMID5117649. Fuks, L, B Hammarberg, J Sundberg (1998). “A self-sustained vocal-ventricular phonation mode: acoustical, aerodynamic and glottographic evidences”. KTH TMH-QPSR: 49–59. Edmondson, Jerold A.; Esling, John H. (2006). “The valves of the throat and their functioning in tone, vocal register and stress: laryngoscopic case studies”. Phonology. 23 (2): 157–191. doi:10.1017/S095267570600087X. ISSN0952-6757. S2CID62531440. Walcott, Ronald (1974). “The Chöömij of Mongolia: A Spectral Analysis of Overtone Singing”. SELECTED REPORTS IN Ethnomusicology. Volume II, No. 1 1974. Story, B. H.; Titze, I. R.; Hoffman, E. A. (1996). “Vocal tract area functions from magnetic resonance imaging”. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 100 (1): 537–554. doi:10.1121/1.415960. ISSN0001-4966. PMID8675847. Johan, Sundberg (2007). Röstlära : fakta om rösten i tal och sång. Johan Sundberg. ISBN978-91-633-0485-9. OCLC862100792. Grawunder, Sven (2009). On the physiology of voice production in South-Siberian throat singing : analysis of acoustic and electrophysiological evidences. Berlin: Frank & Timme. ISBN978-3-86596-995-8. OCLC844248903. Levin, Theodore (2019). Where rivers and mountains sing : sound, music, and nomadism in tuva and beyond. Valentina Süzükei. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN978-0-253-04502-7. OCLC1125296084. Levin, T. C.; Edgerton, M. E. (1999). “The throat singers of Tuva”. Scientific American. 281 (3): 80–87. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0999-80. ISSN0036-8733. PMID10467751. Adachi, S.; Yamada, M. (1999). “An acoustical study of sound production in biphonic singing, Xöömij”. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 105 (5): 2920–2932. doi:10.1121/1.426905. ISSN0001-4966. PMID10335641. Smith, Huston; Stevens, Kenneth N.; Tomlinson, Raymond S. (1967). “On an Unusual Mode of Chanting by Certain Tibetan Lamas”. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 41 (5): 1262–1264. doi:10.1121/1.1910466. ISSN0001-4966. Pillot, Claire (1997). “Les voix du monde. Une anthologie des expressions vocales”. Cahiers de musiques traditionnelles. 10: 333. doi:10.2307/40240285. ISSN1015-5775. JSTOR40240285. Nattiez, Jean-Jacques (1999). “Inuit Throat-Games and Siberian Throat Singing: A Comparative, Historical, and Semiological Approach”. Ethnomusicology. 43 (3): 399–418. doi:10.2307/852555. JSTOR852555. Nattiez, Jean-Jacques (1983). “The Rekkukara of the Ainu (Japan) and the Katajjaq of the Inuit (Canada): A Comparison”. The World of Music. 25 (2): 33–44. ISSN0043-8774. JSTOR43560906. Mercurio, Paolo (2013). Introduzione alla musica sarda : de musica sardiniae, praefatio. Narcissus. ISBN978-88-6885-013-5. OCLC955227257. Kob, Malte (2004). “Analysis and modelling of overtone singing in the sygyt style”. Applied Acoustics. 65 (12): 1249–1259. doi:10.1016/j.apacoust.2004.04.010. Bergevin, Christopher; Narayan, Chandan; Williams, Joy; Mhatre, Natasha; Steeves, Jennifer KE; Bernstein, Joshua GW; Story, Brad (2020-02-17). “Overtone focusing in biphonic tuvan throat singing”. eLife. 9: e50476. doi:10.7554/eLife.50476. ISSN2050-084X. PMC7064340. PMID32048990. Bloothooft, G.; Bringmann, E.; van Cappellen, M.; van Luipen, J. B.; Thomassen, K. P. (1992). “Acoustics and perception of overtone singing”. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 92 (4 Pt 1): 1827–1836. doi:10.1121/1.403839. ISSN0001-4966. PMID1401528. Švec, Jan G.; Schutte, Harm K.; Miller, Donald G. (February 1996). “A Subharmonic Vibratory Pattern in Normal Vocal Folds”. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 39 (1): 135–143. doi:10.1044/jshr.3901.135. ISSN1092-4388. PMID8820705. Herzel, Hanspeter; Reuter, Robert (1996). “Biphonation in voice signals”. AIP Conference Proceedings. Mystic, Connecticut (USA): AIP. 375: 644–657. doi:10.1063/1.51002. Sakakibara, K-I, Fuks L, Imagawa H (2004). Growl Voice in Ethnic and Pop Styles. Nara, Japan: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Musical Acoustics, ISMA 2004. CiteSeerX10.1.1.477.4267.

  1. Lindsey, Geoff (2019), “Chapter 27 Vocal Fry”, English After RP, Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 95–96, doi:10.1007/978-3-030-04357-5_28, ISBN 978-3-030-04356-8, retrieved 2021-10-01

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