Category Archives: acoustics-overtone analyzer

P A Lindestad  1 , M Södersten, B Merker, S Granqvist: Voice source characteristics in Mongolian “throat singing” studied with high-speed imaging technique, acoustic spectra, and inverse filtering.

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https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Voice-source-characteristics-in-Mongolian-%22throat-Lindestad-S%C3%B6dersten/383a4b9cb4ebbb03f45315ff0b667f9b734d42fb

Voice source characteristics in Mongolian “throat singing” studied with high-speed imaging technique, acoustic spectra, and inverse filtering.

Mongolian “throat singing” can be performed in different modes. In Mongolia, the bass-type is called Kargyraa. The voice source in bass-type throat singing was studied in one male singer. The subject alternated between modal voice and the throat singing mode. Vocal fold vibrations were observed with high-speed photography, using a computerized recording system. The spectral characteristics of the sound signal were analyzed. Kymographic image data were compared to the sound signal and flow inverse filtering data from the same singer were obtained on a separate occasion. It was found that the vocal folds vibrated at the same frequency throughout both modes of singing. During throat singing the ventricular folds vibrated with complete but short closures at half the frequency of the true vocal folds, covering every second vocal fold closure. Kymographic data confirmed the findings. The spectrum contained added subharmonics compared to modal voice. In the inverse filtered signal the amplitude of every second airflow pulse was considerably lowered. The ventricular folds appeared to modulate the sound by reducing the glottal flow of every other vocal fold vibratory cycle. Collapse

J Voice Actions

. 2001 Mar;15(1):78-85. doi: 10.1016/S0892-1997(01)00008-X.

Voice source characteristics in Mongolian “throat singing” studied with high-speed imaging technique, acoustic spectra, and inverse filtering

P A Lindestad  1 M SöderstenB MerkerS Granqvist Affiliations

Abstract

Mongolian “throat singing” can be performed in different modes. In Mongolia, the bass-type is called Kargyraa. The voice source in bass-type throat singing was studied in one male singer. The subject alternated between modal voice and the throat singing mode. Vocal fold vibrations were observed with high-speed photography, using a computerized recording system. The spectral characteristics of the sound signal were analyzed. Kymographic image data were compared to the sound signal and flow inverse filtering data from the same singer were obtained on a separate occasion. It was found that the vocal folds vibrated at the same frequency throughout both modes of singing. During throat singing the ventricular folds vibrated with complete but short closures at half the frequency of the true vocal folds, covering every second vocal fold closure. Kymographic data confirmed the findings. The spectrum contained added subharmonics compared to modal voice. In the inverse filtered signal the amplitude of every second airflow pulse was considerably lowered. The ventricular folds appeared to modulate the sound by reducing the glottal flow of every other vocal fold vibratory cycle.

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Nathalie Henrich, John Smith and Joe Wolfe.: Harmonic singing (or Overtone Singing) vs Normal Singing

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Harmonic singing (or overtone singing) vs normal singing


Harmonic singing shares techniques with diphonic singing, overtone singing, xoomi singing, sygyt singing, throat singing, Tuva singing etc. We explain some of the acoustics of this style of singing in terms of the measured acoustical response of the vocal tract. In this technique, the singer emphasises one high harmonic of the voice to such an extent that it is heard separately from the low pitched note being sung. Different notes in the harmonic series may be chosen by changing the frequency of the resonance in the vocal tract that gives rise to it.

For background information on speech and ordinary singing, see our Introduction to the acoustics of the vocal tract. For background about our research and techniques, see this link. On this page, we begin by looking at how the vocal tract behaves for a whisper, where the resonances of the tract are most clear, then for normal singing, then for harmonic singing. But first, some sound examples:

In the first, Jer Ming Chen (a postdoctoral researcher in this lab) sings his own tune, called Desert Lullaby. In the second, he sings up a harmonic series, starting at the fourth harmonic. No treatment of the recording. How does he do that? We’ll need to start with some background first.

Whisper. In the first figure, a subject whispers the vowel in ‘hoard’. We show the frequency response of the vocal tract (For an explanation of the measurements, follow this link.) The sound of the whisper itself is masked by the injected signal used to measure the vocal tract resonances. The figure shows several peaks, indicated by the arrows. At these frequencies, the sound produced at the vocal folds is most effectively transmitted as sound produced in the external air. (Technically, these are peaks in the acoustic impedance of the vocal tract. At these resonant frequencies, the tract operates most effectively as an impedance transformer between the relatively high acoustic impedance of the tract and the low impedance of the radiation field at the mouth.) graph showing the frequency response of the vocal tract for a whisper

Normal singing. In the figure below, the subject sings the same vowel at the pitch Bb3 (117 Hz). In this graph, you can see the harmonics of the voice, and you can see that the fourth and sixth harmonics appear stronger in the sound spectrum because they are near resonances of the tract. graph showing the frequency response of the vocal tract for a sung vowel OR

Over the range shown and for this vowel, this subject’s vocal tract has six resonances, which are indicated by the arrows. Note that the subject changes the first two resonances a little between whispering and singing. The frequencies of these two resonances determine the vowel in a particular accent. It is not unusual for people to have different accents when whispering, speaking and singing. The higher resonances are also substantially changed, probably because rather different vocal mechanisms are used in whispering and singing.

Harmonic singing. The next graphs show two examples of harmonic singing. In this technique, one of the vocal tract resonances is made much stronger, while all the others are weakened. The strong resonance can be made so strong that it selects one of the harmonics and makes it so much stronger than its neighbours that we can hear it as a separate note. Hear it is the eighth harmonic that is amplified. Although the fundamental is only 8 dB lower than the selected harmonic, the fundamental lies in a range in which our ears are much less sensitive, so it sounds much less loud. graph showing the frequency response of the vocal tract for harmonic singing

How do you do it? With some difficulty! One way to strengthen the second resonance, at the expense of the others, is to make a small mouth opening and also a relatively tight constriction between the tongue and the roof of the mouth. But mainly it takes a lot of practice, using feedback. Usually the feedback comes from finding a reasonably reverberant environment (bathroom, stairwell) and listening for the individual harmonics. (Another type of feedback is to use a of the spectrum, using your computer’s sound card. Yet another display uses the graphs shown here, but this last is not readily available.)

In traditional practice, some singers hold the sung pitch (fundamental) constant, and then tune the vocal tract resonances to choose one or another harmonic. They can therefore play the ‘instrument’ using the natural harmonics, just like players of the natural trumpet or horn. Skilled practitioners can vary the voice pitch and the resonant frequency independently. In the next graph, the fundamental has been lowered and the resonance has been raised, with the result that it is the twelfth harmonic that is amplified. graph showing the frequency response of the vocal tract for armonic singing

For some harmonic singers, more complicated effects than those described here may be involved. It has been suggested that, for some sygyt singers, the strong resonance in the vocal tract may drive an oscillation in the false vocal folds. This could produce a stronger signal at the high pitch. Further, because the false vocal folds would be nonlinear oscillators, they would produce strong components at integral multiples of the high pitch frequency, ie at n*f0, 2n*f0, 3n*f0 etc.

This research is part of a project investigation the acoustics of singing in general. It is undertaken by Nathalie Henrich, John Smith and Joe Wolfe.


Some explanatory notes

JOHAN SUNDBERG, biography

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Johan Sundberg

Johan Sundberg (born in 1936, Ph.D. in musicology Uppsala University 1966, doctor honoris causae 1996 University of York, UK) had a personal chair in Music Acoustics at the department from 1979 to his retirement 2001. Since 2002 he is Visiting Professor at the University of London, UK.

He early became interested in the acoustical aspects of music, starting with a doctoral dissertation work on organ pipes. After the dissertation, singing voice and music performance have been his main research topics. He was the head of the music acoustics research group from 1970 to 2001. He has supervised or co-supervised 17 doctoral dissertations, 7 in medical faculties.

In Musikens Ljudlära Sundberg presents music acoustics in popularized form to the interested layman. The book Röstlära, 3rd edition 2001, presents an overview of research on the singing voice. As the President of the Music Acoustics Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Music, Sundberg was editor or co-editor of twelve volumes in a series of proceedings of public seminars on music acoustic themes arranged in Stockholm since 1975.

Sundberg has also had extensive experience of performing music. For 24 years he was a member of the Stockholm Bach Choir, 9 years as its president. He has studied singing for Dagmar Gustafson and made his public debute with a Lieder recital on his 50th birthday. He is a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Music, of the Swedish Acoustical Society (President 1976-81) and a fellow of the Acoustical Society of America.

SVEN GRAWUNDER:On the Physiology of Voice Pro duction in South-Sib erian Throat Singing Analysis of SVEN GRANWULLERS: Acoustic and Electrophysiological Evidence

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On the Physiology of Voice Production in South Siberian Throat Singing / Analysis of Acoustic and Electrophysiological Evidence
[Zur
Physiologie
der
Stimmpro duktion
im
südsibirischen
Kehlgesang
Analyse
akustischer
und
elektrophysiologischer
Daten]
DISSERTATION
zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Philosophie (Dr. phil.) vorgelegt der philosophischen
Fakultät der Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenb erg Fachb ereich Musik-, Sp ort-
und Sprechwissenschaft von
Sven Grawunder
geb. 02.07.1971, in Halle a.d.Saale
Datum der Einreichung: 13.05.2005

http://email.eva.mpg.de/~grawunde/files/GrawPhD3.pdf

I’m a research fellow at the Max-Planck-Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany. There I’m basically working on phonetics and phonology of a number of languages, especially from the Caucasus, Siberia, India, Southern Africa and Argentina. But recently I started doing research on the phonetics of human primates (chimps & bonobos).

s200_sven.grawunder

SVEN GRAWUNDER

header_photohk

What am I doing?

In general …

  • I’m eager to learn about modelling language change driven by language contact, social structures and geography
  • I’m deeply interested in voice, voice perception and voice production from an evolutionary, behavioral and cultural perspective
  • I’m deeply interested in the mechanisms of sound change and language involving acquisition, learning and accommodatin
  • I enjoy doing field work e.g. in language documentation projects, and such engaged in documenting endangered languages
  • I’m eager to learn more about specific phonetic details in individual languages, such as
    • Ket (Yeniseic, Central Siberia)
    • Tsez, Bezhta, Hinuqh, Dargi, Lezgi, Chamalal, Avar, Chechen, Ingush (Nakh-Dagestanian, North-East Caucasus), Georgian (Kartvelian),
    • Gta’, Bonda (Munda, India)
    • Hoocaak (Sioux, USA)
    • German (especially Thuringian-Saxonian varieties)
    • Taa (Tuu (KhoiSan))
    • Kurmanji Kurdish (Iranian, Turkey/Armenia/Iraq/Azerbaidjan/Iran/…)
    • Yoruba (Niger-Kongo), Oko, Ebira (Atlantic-Congo)
    • Vilela (Lule-Vilela)
    • Welsh (Celtic)

Singing CHAKRAS with OVERTONES and Spectral Analysis by TRAN QUANG HAI

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Uploaded on Feb 22, 2009

Trân Quang Hai showed the spectrum of 7 CHAKRAS thanks to the software Overtone Analyzer.

(website: http://sygyt.com)

Filmed in Limeil Brevannes, France, Sunday 22 February 2009

Normalized Spectrum for easy comparison of relative harmonic intensity in Overtone Analyzer

Video

Published on Apr 11, 2013
This video shows how to compare the relative intensity of the harmonics in a recording with the new normalized spectral display in Overtone Analyzer. Instead of showing the absolute intensity in the spectrum, each point in time is scaled so that the loudest harmonic at that point has zero decibel, and the intensity of all other harmonics is relative to the loudest one. This makes it easier to visualize the spectral composition and the timbre of the sound.

The overtone singing is done by Wolfgang Saus (http://www.oberton.org), and the software is Overtone Analyzer (http://www.sygyt.com).

Comparing sounds with Overtone Analyzer (Part 2)

Video

Published on Aug 14, 2013
Comparing sounds and audio recordings with Overtone Analyzer Premium. This tutorial shows the Long Term Average Spectrum (LTAS), and how to display the LTAS of several marked sections on top of each other so that they can easily be compared.
The video also shows the Normalized Spectrum, which allows to analyze the relative harmonic intensity of a recording.
These features are only available in Overtone Analyzer Premium, not in the Live or Free Edition.
More about Overtone Analyzer at http://www.sygyt.com.

Overtone Analyzer Quickstart Tutorial: record and visualize your voice

Video

Ajoutée le 10 mars 2013
This is a video version of the quickstart tutorial for Overtone Analyzer that can be found at http://www.sygyt.com/en/quickstart. The video explains the basic features of the software and how to use them to record and visualize your voice or instrument.

In particular, I’m showing you to set up your microphone, how to make a recording, how to play it back and listen to it, how to visualize the fundamental pitch, the spectrum, and the spectrogram, how to apply frequency filters to listen to individual overtones, and how to use the overtone sliders.

Contents:
00:00 Introduction
00:17 Applying the Quickstart Profile
00:49 Select microphone and set input volume
02:20 Start recording, play tone on piano keyboard and sing it
03:14 Zoom and scroll frequency range and time range
04:52 Long-term view and short-term view
05:55 Replay a selection
07:07 Spectrum and Spectrogram
08:36 Frequency Filter
10:46 Overtone Slider
11:57 Conclusion