Daily Archives: November 21, 2021

Seiji ADACHI & Masashi YAMADA : An acoustical study of sound production in biphonic singing, Xöömij


Seiji ADACHI & Masashi YAMADA : An acoustical study of sound production in biphonic singing, Xöömij

Abstract A theory that the high melody pitch of biphonic singing, Xöömij, is produced by the pipe resonance of the rear cavity in the vocal tract is proposed. The front cavity resonance is not critical to the production of the melody pitch. This theory is derived from acoustic investigations on several three-dimensional shapes of a Xöömij singer’s vocal tract measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Four different shapes of the vocal tract are examined, with which the melody pitches of F6, G6, A6, and C7 are sung, along with the F3 drone of a specific pressed voice. The second formant frequency calculated from each tract shape is close to the melody pitch within an error of 36 cents. Sounds are synthesized by convolving a glottal source waveform provided by the Rosenberg model with transfer functions calculated from the vocal tract shapes. Two pitches are found to be successfully perceived when the synthesized sounds are listened to. In a frequency range below 2 kHz, their spectra have a strong resemblance to those of the sounds actually sung. The synthesized sounds, however, fail to replicate the harmonic clustering at 4–5 kHz observed in the actual sounds. This is speculated to originate from the glottal source specific to the “pressed” timbre of the drone.


  1. 1. B. Chernov and V. Maslov, “Larynx—Double-sound generator,” Proc. 11th Int. Conf. of Phonetic Science, Tallinn, Estonia, pp. 40–43 (1987). Google Scholar
  2. 2. Q. H. Trân and D. Guillou, “Original research and acoustical analysis in connection with the Xöömij style of biphonic singing,” in Musical Voices of Asia (Heibonsha, Tokyo, 1980), pp. 162–173. Google Scholar
  3. 3. T. Muraoka, K. Wagatsuma, and M. Horiuchi, “Acoustic analysis of the Mongolian singing Xöömij,” Proc. Fall Meet. Acoust. Soc. Jpn., pp. 385–386 (1983) (in Japanese). Google Scholar
  4. 4. S. Adachi, S. Kinoshita, H. Tamagawa, and M. Yamada, “MRI measurement of the vocal-tract shape while singing Xöömij and the synthesis based on the acoustic tube model,” Tech. Rep. Musical Acoustics MA96-10, 9–16 (1996) (in Japanese). Google Scholar
  5. 5. S. Adachi, S. Kinoshita, T. Komoike, H. Tamagawa, and M. Yamada, “Study on sound production in Xöömij—Part 1: MRI measurement of the vocal-tract shape and the synthesis based on the acoustic tube model,” Proc. Spring Meet. Acoust. Soc. Jpn., pp. 645–646 (1996) (in Japanese). Google Scholar
  6. 6. T. Komoike, S. Kinoshita, M. Yamada, S. Adachi, and I. Nakayama, “Study on sound production in Xöömij—Part 2: Perceptual experiment with synthesized sound,” Proc. Spring Meet. Acoust. Soc. Jpn., pp. 647–648 (1996) (in Japanese). Google Scholar
  7. 7. S. Adachi and M. Yamada, “An acoustical study of sound production in biphonic singing, Xöömij,” Proc. 1997 Japan-China Joint Meeting on Musical Acoustics, pp. 21–26 (1997). Google Scholar
  8. 8. B. H. Story, I. R. Titze, and E. A. Hoffman, “Vocal tract area functions from magnetic resonance imaging,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 537–554 (1996). Google ScholarScitation, CAS
  9. 9. J. Dang, K. Honda, and H. Suzuki, “Morphological and acoustical analysis of the nasal and the paranasal cavities,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 2088–2100 (1994). , Google ScholarScitation, CAS
  10. 10. R. Caussé, J. Kergomard, and X. Lurton, “Input impedance of brass musical instruments—Comparison between experiments and numerical models,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 75, 241–254 (1984). , Google ScholarScitation
  11. 11. M. M. Sondhiand J. Schroeter, “A hybrid time-frequency domain articulatory speech synthesizer,” IEEE Trans. Acoust., Speech, Signal Process. ASSP-35, 955–967 (1987). , Google ScholarCrossref
  12. 12. A. E. Rosenberg, “Effect of glottal pulse shape on the quality of natural vowels,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 583–590 (1971). , Google ScholarScitation
  13. 13. The synthesized tones can be heard on the World Wide Web at http://www.hip.atr.co.jp/∼adachi/Xoomij/Sound/. , Google Scholar
  14. 14. J. Dangand K. Honda, “Acoustic characteristics of the piriform fossa in models and humans,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 101, 456–465 (1997). Google ScholarScitation, CAS
  15. 15. D. G. Childersand C. K. Lee, “Vocal quality factors: Analysis, synthesis, and perception,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 90, 2394–2410 (1991). , Google ScholarScitation, CAS
  16. 16. K. Ishizakaand J. L. Flanagan, “Synthesis of voiced sounds from a two-mass model of the vocal cords,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 51, 1233–1268 (1972). , Google ScholarCrossref
  17. 17. M. Yamada, “Stream segregation in Mongolian traditional singing, Xöömij,” Proc. Int. Sym. Musical Acoustics, Dourdan, pp. 540–545 (1995). , Google Scholar
  18. 18. J. L. Flanagan, Speech Analysis, Synthesis and Perception, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1972), Chap. 3, pp. 36–38. Google Scholar
  19. © 1999 Acoustical Society of America.

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 105, 2920 (1999); https://doi.org/10.1121/1.426905


Researchers Unlocked The Mystery Of Tuvan Throat Singing


Researchers Unlocked The Mystery Of Tuvan Throat Singing

Researchers Unlocked The Mystery Of Tuvan Throat Singing

An international research team has unlocked the mystery of how Tuvan throat singers from Mongolia produce different sounds in which you can hear two different sounds simultaneously. Fascinated by this form of throat singing from central Asia, known as Khoomei, researchers from Western, York University and the University of Arizona examined the vocals of the members of the Tuvan performing group. The researchers observed that Tuvan singers were able to uniquely compress their vocal tract one at the front of their mouth using their tongue and another at the back of their throat to produce dual sounds. The Tuvans have been famous for making sound through such precise control of their vocal track that they can sort of tease these things out and produce concurrent sounds.

Disclaimer: The above article has been aggregated by a computer program and summarised by an Steamdaily specialist. You can read the original article at scienceblog


MIKAYLA MACE: Researchers Solve Mystery of Tuvan Throat Singing


Researchers Solve Mystery of Tuvan Throat Singing

March 11, 2020 Mikayla Mace

Researchers Solve Mystery of Tuvan Throat Singing

Researchers have solved the mystery of how Tuvan throat singers produce what sounds like two different pitches at once – a low rumble and a high whistle-like tone.

Tuvan throat singing, called Khoomei, originated in central Asia and has been practiced for generations. Fascinated with how this form of throat singing creates dual tones, scientists studied members of the Tuvan performing group Huun Huur Tu to see firsthand how the singers do it.

“They can produce two different pitches, which goes against the typical way we think about how speech sounds are produced,” said lead study author and University of Arizona alumnus Christopher Bergevin, who is now at York University. “It was a bit of a mystery how they did it and it’s something researchers have wondered about for the last two decades.”

The researchers’ findings are published in the journal eLife.

Study co-author Brad Story, a professor in the UArizona Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, is an expert on the physics of sound production in speech and singing, and he developed a computer model to simulate what happens in the throats of the Tuvan throat singers.

To figure out the mechanisms involved, researchers recorded the singers in a sound booth and shot a series of images of one the Tuvan performers singing while in an MRI scanner. Those images were sent to a co-author at Western University, who helped reconstruct the vocal tract shape, as well as Story, who modeled and simulated the singing.

“These singers are using their vocal tracts like musical instruments,” Story said. “We found two locations (involved in throat singing) – one just behind the upper teeth using their tongue and another in the area of near the back of the mouth that turns into the throat.”

In normal speaking, “we adjust our pitch, we change our loudness or amplitude, and we extend the vowels,” said York University co-author Chandan Narayan. “What is interesting about this type of throat singing is that it does something different. It’s a highly unusual sound that you don’t hear in other forms of singing.”

Birds and some frogs can produce two distinct tones, but the Russian republic of Tuva, located in central Asia, is one of only a few locations where throat singing is practiced by humans.

“The question becomes, why are there two pitches heard when Tuvan singers sing? They don’t have two sets of vocal cords,” Narayan said.

In humans, vocal folds make sound by vibrating creating a buzzing noise. How fast or slow the vocal cords vibrate determines whether a high- or low-pitched sound is produced. The faster they vibrate, the higher the pitch of the voice. But they also produce a series of harmonics or “overtones.” The mouth and tongue shape theses overtones, creating resonances at certain frequencies called formants. Vowels in human speech are determined by the first three formants – F1, F2 and F3.

Each formant is usually distinct, but Tuvan singers can merge multiple formants to create one exceedingly sharpened formant.

“The Tuvans are able to make this sound through such precise control of their vocal track that they can kind of tease these things out and create simultaneously sounds. One of the things that’s so remarkable about it is that it doesn’t sound like any human could do this, to have that degree of motor control,” Bergevin said.

“Potentially anyone could learn to do this,” Story said, “but it takes a lot of practice.”

Khusugtun – Mongolian music in London – BBC Proms 2011 Human Planet


Khusugtun – Mongolian music in London – BBC Proms 2011 Human Planet

5,049,465 viewsAug 12, 201146KDislikeShareSaveMongolPeace 20.7K subscribers Inspired by the landmark BBC One natural history documentary, Human Planet, this Prom will feature music from the series performed by the BBC Concert Orchestra, alongside musicians from Greenland, Mongolia, Papua New Guinea, the Sakha republic and Zambia. Presented by John Hurt, the voice of the BBC One series, the Prom includes big-screen highlights from the programme.

Human Planet Proms – Khusugtun – Mongol


Human Planet Proms – Khusugtun – Mongol

118,112 viewsAug 8, 20111KDislikeShareSaveRupertJones 42.8K subscribers Human Planet Proms, ft Khusugtun – Mongol The word ‘khusug’ means a cart used by pastoral nomads, and Khusugtun means the nomads who move with these carts. More generally, the word describes the process of moving camel, horse and yak caravans across the vast Gobi Desert. This transfer of peope and animals is at the heart of traditional Mongolian life. Whole communities are packed up and put on the back of a khusug when the land turns fallow or the winter sets in. From the words of the songs, to the horse-head fiddles they use, Khusugtun capture and evoke movement: this positive, forward-moving energy, tinged with the melancholy of farewell. They are a group who perform songs that Genghis Khan himself would have heard, as well as preserving and bringing the 21st century traditions that hang on a thread, as many Mongolians make one last journey, leaving the Gobi Desert and heading to the city for a new life. {taken from BBC Program notes/ James Parkin}

Концерт ансамбля “Тыва”. Красноярск. 19 февраля 2013.

Концерт ансамбля “Тыва”. Красноярск. 19 февраля 2013. Concert of the Tyva ensemble. Krasnoyarsk. 19 February 2013.

49,020 viewsMar 14, 2013501DislikeShareSave24openProgramms 3.28K subscribers

Концерт ансамбля “Тыва” г. Кызыл в Красноярске. 19 февраля 2013 год. Студия “Город”. Звук: Игорь Гавришин Камера: Павел Стабров, Танечка Вишневская, Евгений Елбашев Монтаж: Анжела Берестова

Chant harmonique OU diphonique?


Chant harmonique OU diphonique?

22 viewsNov 20, 20210DislikeShareSaveIannis Psallidakos 805 subscribers Vous m’avez demandé… Je vous répond 😉 🥳😁Il est temps d’inaugurer ma nouvelle série de courtes vidéos dédiée au chant diphonique, harmonique et guttural : “Questions-Réponses HarmoDiphoniques” La première vidéo répond à la question “Chant harmonique OU diphonique?” 🧑‍🎤 Si vous avez une question concernant cette pratique étonnante, laissez votre commentaire ci-dessous. Ça me ferra plaisir de vous lire 🤗