Daily Archives: November 20, 2021

Jean Abitbol : les mystères de la voix féminine

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Jean Abitbol : les mystères de la voix féminine

1,249 viewsMay 3, 201916DislikeShareSaveTV5MONDE Info 829K subscribers C’est la 1ère voix que l’on entend. Elle va stimuler notre esprit, notre pensée, notre propre voix : quelles sont les particularités de la voix de la femme ? Sa musicalité, ses harmoniques ? De Maria Callas à Céline Dion, le docteur Jean Abitbol, ORL, expert international dans le domaine de la laryngologie, révèle ses secrets dans « Voix de femme », (éd. Odile Jacob).

Quels sont les secrets de la voix ? Jean Abitbol #cadire 29-04-2016

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Quels sont les secrets de la voix ? Jean Abitbol #cadire 29-04-2016

12,853 viewsMay 6, 2016LikeDislikeShareSaveC à dire 32.6K subscribers Quels sont les secrets de la voix ? Jean Abitbol #cadire 29-04-2016 Axel de Tarlé reçoit le Docteur Jean Abitbol, chirurgien ORL, spécialiste des cordes vocales, pour parler des secrets de la voix. La voix, c’est l’une des grandes inégalités de la vie. Il y a des gens qui naissent avec de jolies voix, chaudes et amicales. D’autres naissent avec des voix désagréables qu’ils vont garder toute leur vie. “Effectivement. C’est une inégalité, car la voix qui part dans les graves, vous vivez avec, vous ne pouvez pas les chercher. Les aigus sont dans les voix de crécelle, mais ça s’apprend, aujourd’hui. Ça peut se corriger par l’orthophonie, et on peut réapprendre à positionner son larynx. En parlant comme ça, j’ai une voix qui n’est pas si aiguë. Je peux me permettre de parler un plus grave, mais ce n’est pas sincère. Il y a un jeu entre les deux, entre la sincérité et le fait d’aller chercher une voix qui n’est pas tout à fait la vôtre. Une belle voix, c’est une voix qui vous permet d’être en connexion avec vous-même”… Retrouvez-nous sur : | Notre site : http://www.france5.fr/emissions/c-a-dire | Twitter : https://twitter.com/CaDireF5 Fort du succès de C dans l’air, France 5 a choisi de renforcer son offre de décryptage et d’analyse de l’actualité au quotidien. Depuis septembre 2007, la chaîne a installé un nouveau rendez-vous, piloté désormais par Axel de Tarlé. Chaque jour, il interroge de manière incisive un invité choisi pour son point de vue sur l’actualité la plus chaude. Ce rendez-vous s’est installé pour devenir un lieu incontournable de l’entretien. Face au succès remporté, ce sont désormais 10 minutes que Axel de Tarlé consacre à ses invités, illustrant ses questions de références visuelles. Format : 10 minutes Présentation : Axel de Tarlé Réalisation : Pascal Hendrick, Jean-François Verzele et Jacques Wehrlin Production : France Télévisions/Maximal Productions

P A Lindestad  1 , M Södersten, B Merker, S Granqvist: Voice source characteristics in Mongolian “throat singing” studied with high-speed imaging technique, acoustic spectra, and inverse filtering.

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https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Voice-source-characteristics-in-Mongolian-%22throat-Lindestad-S%C3%B6dersten/383a4b9cb4ebbb03f45315ff0b667f9b734d42fb

Voice source characteristics in Mongolian “throat singing” studied with high-speed imaging technique, acoustic spectra, and inverse filtering.

Mongolian “throat singing” can be performed in different modes. In Mongolia, the bass-type is called Kargyraa. The voice source in bass-type throat singing was studied in one male singer. The subject alternated between modal voice and the throat singing mode. Vocal fold vibrations were observed with high-speed photography, using a computerized recording system. The spectral characteristics of the sound signal were analyzed. Kymographic image data were compared to the sound signal and flow inverse filtering data from the same singer were obtained on a separate occasion. It was found that the vocal folds vibrated at the same frequency throughout both modes of singing. During throat singing the ventricular folds vibrated with complete but short closures at half the frequency of the true vocal folds, covering every second vocal fold closure. Kymographic data confirmed the findings. The spectrum contained added subharmonics compared to modal voice. In the inverse filtered signal the amplitude of every second airflow pulse was considerably lowered. The ventricular folds appeared to modulate the sound by reducing the glottal flow of every other vocal fold vibratory cycle. Collapse

J Voice Actions

. 2001 Mar;15(1):78-85. doi: 10.1016/S0892-1997(01)00008-X.

Voice source characteristics in Mongolian “throat singing” studied with high-speed imaging technique, acoustic spectra, and inverse filtering

P A Lindestad  1 M SöderstenB MerkerS Granqvist Affiliations

Abstract

Mongolian “throat singing” can be performed in different modes. In Mongolia, the bass-type is called Kargyraa. The voice source in bass-type throat singing was studied in one male singer. The subject alternated between modal voice and the throat singing mode. Vocal fold vibrations were observed with high-speed photography, using a computerized recording system. The spectral characteristics of the sound signal were analyzed. Kymographic image data were compared to the sound signal and flow inverse filtering data from the same singer were obtained on a separate occasion. It was found that the vocal folds vibrated at the same frequency throughout both modes of singing. During throat singing the ventricular folds vibrated with complete but short closures at half the frequency of the true vocal folds, covering every second vocal fold closure. Kymographic data confirmed the findings. The spectrum contained added subharmonics compared to modal voice. In the inverse filtered signal the amplitude of every second airflow pulse was considerably lowered. The ventricular folds appeared to modulate the sound by reducing the glottal flow of every other vocal fold vibratory cycle.

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Nathalie Henrich, John Smith and Joe Wolfe.: Harmonic singing (or Overtone Singing) vs Normal Singing

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Harmonic singing (or overtone singing) vs normal singing


Harmonic singing shares techniques with diphonic singing, overtone singing, xoomi singing, sygyt singing, throat singing, Tuva singing etc. We explain some of the acoustics of this style of singing in terms of the measured acoustical response of the vocal tract. In this technique, the singer emphasises one high harmonic of the voice to such an extent that it is heard separately from the low pitched note being sung. Different notes in the harmonic series may be chosen by changing the frequency of the resonance in the vocal tract that gives rise to it.

For background information on speech and ordinary singing, see our Introduction to the acoustics of the vocal tract. For background about our research and techniques, see this link. On this page, we begin by looking at how the vocal tract behaves for a whisper, where the resonances of the tract are most clear, then for normal singing, then for harmonic singing. But first, some sound examples:

In the first, Jer Ming Chen (a postdoctoral researcher in this lab) sings his own tune, called Desert Lullaby. In the second, he sings up a harmonic series, starting at the fourth harmonic. No treatment of the recording. How does he do that? We’ll need to start with some background first.

Whisper. In the first figure, a subject whispers the vowel in ‘hoard’. We show the frequency response of the vocal tract (For an explanation of the measurements, follow this link.) The sound of the whisper itself is masked by the injected signal used to measure the vocal tract resonances. The figure shows several peaks, indicated by the arrows. At these frequencies, the sound produced at the vocal folds is most effectively transmitted as sound produced in the external air. (Technically, these are peaks in the acoustic impedance of the vocal tract. At these resonant frequencies, the tract operates most effectively as an impedance transformer between the relatively high acoustic impedance of the tract and the low impedance of the radiation field at the mouth.) graph showing the frequency response of the vocal tract for a whisper

Normal singing. In the figure below, the subject sings the same vowel at the pitch Bb3 (117 Hz). In this graph, you can see the harmonics of the voice, and you can see that the fourth and sixth harmonics appear stronger in the sound spectrum because they are near resonances of the tract. graph showing the frequency response of the vocal tract for a sung vowel OR

Over the range shown and for this vowel, this subject’s vocal tract has six resonances, which are indicated by the arrows. Note that the subject changes the first two resonances a little between whispering and singing. The frequencies of these two resonances determine the vowel in a particular accent. It is not unusual for people to have different accents when whispering, speaking and singing. The higher resonances are also substantially changed, probably because rather different vocal mechanisms are used in whispering and singing.

Harmonic singing. The next graphs show two examples of harmonic singing. In this technique, one of the vocal tract resonances is made much stronger, while all the others are weakened. The strong resonance can be made so strong that it selects one of the harmonics and makes it so much stronger than its neighbours that we can hear it as a separate note. Hear it is the eighth harmonic that is amplified. Although the fundamental is only 8 dB lower than the selected harmonic, the fundamental lies in a range in which our ears are much less sensitive, so it sounds much less loud. graph showing the frequency response of the vocal tract for harmonic singing

How do you do it? With some difficulty! One way to strengthen the second resonance, at the expense of the others, is to make a small mouth opening and also a relatively tight constriction between the tongue and the roof of the mouth. But mainly it takes a lot of practice, using feedback. Usually the feedback comes from finding a reasonably reverberant environment (bathroom, stairwell) and listening for the individual harmonics. (Another type of feedback is to use a of the spectrum, using your computer’s sound card. Yet another display uses the graphs shown here, but this last is not readily available.)

In traditional practice, some singers hold the sung pitch (fundamental) constant, and then tune the vocal tract resonances to choose one or another harmonic. They can therefore play the ‘instrument’ using the natural harmonics, just like players of the natural trumpet or horn. Skilled practitioners can vary the voice pitch and the resonant frequency independently. In the next graph, the fundamental has been lowered and the resonance has been raised, with the result that it is the twelfth harmonic that is amplified. graph showing the frequency response of the vocal tract for armonic singing

For some harmonic singers, more complicated effects than those described here may be involved. It has been suggested that, for some sygyt singers, the strong resonance in the vocal tract may drive an oscillation in the false vocal folds. This could produce a stronger signal at the high pitch. Further, because the false vocal folds would be nonlinear oscillators, they would produce strong components at integral multiples of the high pitch frequency, ie at n*f0, 2n*f0, 3n*f0 etc.

This research is part of a project investigation the acoustics of singing in general. It is undertaken by Nathalie Henrich, John Smith and Joe Wolfe.


Some explanatory notes

TSAI CHEN-GIA, Ph.D. Acoustics, Taiwan

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TSAI Chen-Gia, Ph.D. Acoustics, Taiwan

TSAI Chen-Gia, Ph.D. Acoustics, Taiwan



Vocal fold vibration and singing


* Ultrasonic imaging of vocal folds
* Vocal fold vibration as sea waves on a porous seabed
* Overtone singing & high-frequency vocalization
* Growl voice & spine stability


Chen-Gia Tsai
Assistant Professor, Graduate Institute of Musicology
National Taiwan University, Taipei, TAIWAN

Ph.D., Musikwissenschaft
Humboldt-University Berlin, Germany
Research Interests
Mechanics of the Chinese membrane flute

* Acoustic effects of the dizi membrane
* Linear effects of the membrane: impedance
* Nonlinear effects of the membrane I: jump phenomena and wrinkles in the membrane
* Nonlinear effects of the membrane II: spectral features

Perception of musical sounds

* Brightness and spatial effects
* Helmholtz’s hollowness and nasality
* Roughness induced by subharmonics

Vocal fold vibration and singing

* Ultrasonic imaging of vocal folds
* Vocal fold vibration as sea waves on a porous seabed
* Overtone singing & high-frequency vocalization
* Growl voice & spine stability

Biomusicology

* Absolute pitch
* Music & biological motor system
* Chinese opera music & memetics

Selected Publications
Journal papers

C.G. Tsai (2004) Absolute pitch: studies in cognitive psychology. Guandu Music Journal 1, 77-92.

C.G. Tsai (2005) Chaotic behavior of performer’s vocalizations: an interdisciplinary study of growl voices. Taipei Theatre Journal 2, 39-62.

C.G. Tsai (2006) Disease and Composing: Syphilis in Smetana, Wolf, and Schubert. Formosan Journal of Music Research 3, 91-106.

Chen-Gia Tsai, Yio-Wha Shau, Hon-Man Liu, and Tzu-Yu Hsiao. Laryngeal mechanisms during human 4 kHz vocalization studied with CT, videostroboscopy, and color Doppler imaging (accepted by Journal of Voice)
Conference papers

C.G. Tsai (2003) Relating the harmonic-rich sound of the Chinese flute (dizi) to the cubic nonlinearity of its membrane (poster). Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference 2003, August 6-9.

C.G. Tsai (2004) Helmholtz’s nasality revisited: physics and perception of sounds with predominance of upper odd-numbered harmonics (poster). Proceedings of the International Symposium on Musical Acoustics, March 31-April 3, Nara, Japan.

C.G. Tsai (2004) Auditory grouping in the perception of roughness induced by subharmonics: empirical findings and a qualitative model (oral). Proceedings of the International Symposium on Musical Acoustics, March 31-April 3, Nara, Japan.

J.H. Chen, and C.G. Tsai (2004) Experimental research of the flow field in a brass mouthpiece-like channel using Particle Image Velocimetry (poster). Proceedings of the International Symposium on Musical Acoustics, March 31-April 3, Nara, Japan.

C.G. Tsai, Y.W. Shau, and T.Y. Hsiao (2004) False vocal fold surface waves during Sygyt singing: a hypothesis (oral). International Conference on Voice Physiology and Biomechanics, August 18-20, Marseille, France.

C.G. Tsai (2004) The timbre space of the Chinese membrane flute (dizi): physical and psychoacoustical effects (invited). 148th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, November 15-19, San Diego.

C.G. Tsai (2005) Multi-pitch effect on cognition of solo music: examples of the Chinese flute, Jew’s harp and overtone singing (oral). International Symposium on Body & Cognition, June 4-5, Taipei, Taiwan.

C.G. Tsai, W. Auhagen (2005) Intonation, tone range and timbre of the Chinese flute (dizi): a Duffing oscillator model of the dizi membrane (oral). Conference on Traditional Music Instruments, September 10-11, Taipei, Taiwan.

C.G. Tsai (2005) Disease and composing: syphilis in Smetana, Wolf, and Schubert (oral). Taiwan Symposium on Musicology, November 11-12, Taipei, Taiwan.

C.G. Tsai, T.Y. Hsiao, Y.W. Shau, and J.H. Chen (2006) Towards an intermediate water wave model of vocal fold vibration: Evidence from vocal-fold dynamic sonography (oral). International Conference on Voice Physiology and Biomechanics, July 12-14 2006, Tokyo, Japan.

C.G. Tsai, Y.W. Shau, and T.Y. Hsiao (2006) Vocal fold wave velocity in the cover and body layers measured in vivo using dynamic sonography (oral). 7th International Conference on Advances in Quantitative Laryngology, Voice and Speech Research, October 6-7, 2006, Groningen, the Netherlands.

C.G. Tsai (2006) Inharmonic sounds of bowed strings in Western music and Beijing opera (oral). 4th Joint Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America and the Acoustical Society of Japan, 28 November-2 December, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.
Links

* Music Acoustics Laboratory at UNSW (impedance measurements of the dizi were performed there)
* Mitzi Meyerson’s homepage (my favorite harpsichordist)
* Introduction to the Qin
* Learn traditional Chinese painting
* Liu Fang’s pipa and guzheng music world

[Chinese version]
Latest update: 12/2006

http://homepage.ntu.edu.tw/~gim/gia/index.html