Daily Archives: January 2, 2014

Soutenance de thèse sur le chant diphonique mongol de JOHANNI CURTET, FRANCE

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Soutenance de thèse sur le chant diphonique mongol

Publié le 10 novembre 2013

Johanni Curtet, actif au sein d’Otasie, soutiendra sa thèse sur la transmission, l’ethnomusicologie et l’histoire du chant diphonique mongol, le mardi 12 novembre à 13h30 à l’université Rennes 2. Cette soutenance est publique.

Accès: Salle des Thèses, bâtiment La Présidence 7e étage, Campus Villejean, Place du Recteur Henri Le Moal, Rennes.Métro: arrêt université Rennes 2.

Résumé:La transmission du höömij, un art du timbre vocal :ethnomusicologie et histoire du chant diphonique mongolCette thèse est une étude ethnomusicologique à dimension historique portant sur la transmission globale du höömij en Mongolie. Pour expliquer l’évolution de cette technique vocale, sont explorés les légendes, les conceptions autochtones, l’histoire des années 1950 au début des années 2010 et la mise en patrimoine pour l’avenir.La première partie montre comment le chant diphonique prend forme dans sa culture. Perçu comme un art du timbre par ses détenteurs, il entretient des relations avec la nature, ainsi qu’un ensemble de techniques vocales et instrumentales issues des contextes rituel et pastoral.Ces fondements du höömij sont ensuite examinés à la lumière de l’histoire de la Mongolie. Entre les périodes soviétique et contemporaine, la deuxième partie brosse les changements survenus dans la pratique, entre la scène et l’enregistrement. À côté de l’usage rural, se développe une nouvelle forme professionnelle. Tous ces apports ont façonné le chant diphonique mongol dans son état actuel.La troisième partie étudie la transmission à travers l’enseignement et la patrimonialisation. Les maîtres évoluent entre deux pôles : un village de l’Altaï perçu comme le lieu des origines, et une université d’Ulaanbaatar, qui académise la pratique et diffuse son modèle au niveau national. Tout cela participe au processus de patrimonialisation du höömij, de sa constitution en emblème musical sous la période soviétique à son inscription sur la liste du Patrimoine Culturel Immatériel de l’Unesco. Le höömij mongol apparaît dans toute sa contemporanéité. Au plaisir de vous y voir!

Cours mensuel de chant diphonique mongol

Publié le 18 septembre 2013

Cours mensuel de chant diphonique mongol au CPFI, Le Mans.

Les cours auront lieu un samedi par mois d’octobre 2013 à mai 2014.
Cette année, deux niveaux sont proposés: initiation réservé aux débutants et perfectionnement pour ceux qui connaissent déjà le principe général du style mongol et qui contrôlent leurs harmoniques.

Calendrier : les samedi 5 octobre, 9 novembre et 7 décembre 2013, 11 janvier, 1er février, 1er mars, 5 avril et 17 mai 2014.

Horaires :
Initiation : 10h à 12h30
Perfectionnement : 14h-16h30.

Vous trouverez aussi toute les informations nécessaire concernant les tarifs et réservations ici. N’hésitez pas à faire circuler l’information aux personnes susceptibles d’être intéressées.

Contacts: Johanni Curtet (06.21.35.53.01), curtetjohanni@yahoo.fr
Profil: www.ethnomusicologie.fr
Concerts: www.routesnomades.fr

« Ongod » Nouvel album d’Altaï Khangaï

Publié le 10 septembre 2013

Ongod

ALTAÏ KHANGAÏ
Nouvel album « Ongod »
sortie le 28 octobre 2013
[Full Rhizome – Buda Musique]

« Le trio  » Altaï Khangaï  » a l’art et la manière de transposer les musiques ancestrales de Mongolie dans un présent radieux et créatif. Cithares yagta et yoochin, luth tovshuur, tambour des chamanes, flûte à bourdon vocal, guimbardes… grâce à cet imposant instrumentarium traditionnel et au chant diphonique, la créativité d’Altaï Khangaï ne connait plus de limites. »

Altaï Khangaï est en concert:
le 09 novembre • Espace Jardin de Madame • à Oppède (84) programmation de la Gare Coustellet
le 12 novembre • Studio de l’Ermitage • Paris (20e)

Toutes les infos sur www.altaikhangai.com

Contes de la terre du ciel bleu

Publié le 3 avril 2013

Conte musical franco-mongol présenté par Le Groupe Musiques Vivantes de Lyon

A l’occasion de la venue en France des instrumentistes mongols Bayarbaatar Davaasuren, (directeur chorégraphique du Théâtre des Arts Traditionnels d’Oulan Bator et spécialiste du chant diphonique) et Chinbat Baasankhuu, (professeure de yatga à l’université des Arts et de la Culture de Mongolie), Bernard Fort et le Groupe Musiques Vivantes de Lyon vous proposent une création franco-mongole « Contes de la terre du ciel bleu ».

« Contes de la terre du ciel bleu » est un spectacle de conte musical tout public qui s’inspire des récits de voyages rapportés par l’explorateur Henri Bouillane de Lacoste, évoquant la Mongolie et ses traditions artistiques et culturelles.

Les organisateurs proposent également des activités autour de la culture mongole… de nombreuses propositions artistiques.

  • Récitals : chant diphonique, musique traditionnelle, yatga,
  • Conférences : musique et traditions de Mongolie,
  • Stages : chant diphonique, danse traditionnelle mongole,
  • Expositions : costumes et instruments de musique traditionnels,
  • Rencontres avec les artistes…

Dates / Lieux:

  • Spectacle musical « Contes de la terre du ciel bleu », Médiathèque de Sceaux (92) :samedi 6 avril, 16h00 (TP)
  • Récital de Bayarbaatar Davaasuren et Chinbat Baasankhuu, Maison d’Europe et d’Orient (3, Passage Hennel 75012) : jeudi 4 avril, 20h30
  • Spectacle musical « Contes de la terre du ciel bleu », Festival Détours de Babel (Grenoble, 38) : du 16 au 18 avril,
  • Récital de Bayarbaatar Davaasuren et Chinbat Baasankhuu, Abbaye de Noirlac, Les Matinales (18) : dimanche 14 avril, 10h30

Liens et informations: http://www.gmvl.org/xlagenda33/agenda.php

Récital de musique traditionnelle mongole

Publié le 3 avril 2013

La Maison d’Europe et d’Orient, et le Groupe Musiques Vivantes de Lyon présentent ce jeudi 4 avril à 20H30, un récital de musique traditionnelle mongole avec :

Bayarbaatar Davaasuren (Directeur chorégraphique du Théâtre des Arts Traditionnels d’Oulan Bator et spécialiste du chant diphonique), et

Chinbat Baasankhuu (Soliste et professeure et de yatga à l’université des Arts et de la culture de Mongolie)

Lieu : 3, passage Hennel -75012 Paris (Plan)

Liens :
http://www.sildav.org/component/allevents/display/event/default/204-recital-de-musique-mongole
et, http://www.gmvl.org/productions_spectacles2.php?id_spectacles=2

Le Chant des Montagnes d’Or

Publié le 20 février 2013

Le Chant des Montagnes d’Oralpaltai

Ensemble traditionnel Altyn-Tuu

6 mars Grenoble (38) – Université Stendhal, l’Amphidice : MASTERCLASS 12h-15h

7 mars Grenoble (38) – Université Stendhal, l’Amphidice : concert 19h

8 mars Gignac (34) – l’Office Culturel (1èrepartie de Susheela Raman) : concert 21h

13 mars Neuchâtel (Suisse) – Culture Nomade : concert 21h

15 mars Genève (Suisse) – AMR, en parenariat avec l’ADEM : concert 21h30

17 mars Paris (75) – Centre Mandapa : MASTERCLASS 14h30-16h30 et concert 18h

18 mars Paris (75) – Centre Mandapa : MASTERCLASS (sous réserve) et concert 21h

21 mars Paris (75) – EPHE-EHESS, Auditorium du France : rencontre et concert 11hFREE

22 mars Bourg-le-Comte (71) – Le Canoe Renversant : concert 20h30

23 mars Cluses (74) – L’Atelier : concert 20h30

24 mars Fillinges (74) – La Sapinière : rencontre et concert ? 17h

Contact : Association AlpAltaï 513, route des Tattes 74250 FILLINGES, 06-51-31-10-47

alpaltai@gmailcom

URBI & ORBI

Publié le 29 janvier 2013

Ils sont de nouveau France pour une création éclectique autour du chant diphonique: « URBI & ORBI ». Ils donneront un concert UNIQUE au Mans le 5 février (l’Espal) et à Paris le 6 février (Studio de l’Hermitage).

Réservez votre place en suivant ces liens: Paris et Le Mans.

« D’ici à la Mongolie, il n’y a que la distance d’un désir pour Pierrick Lefranc, jeune compositeur manceau à l’origine de cette création autour du chant diphonique. Le projet germe en lui il y a quelques années, à l’occasion d’une improvisation avec un musicien adepte de cet art vocal si particulier.
Ce « mélange de puissance et d’introspection », qui jaillit du fond du corps, le fascine. Il entame alors une recherche qui le mène à Johanni Curtet, chanteur diphonique, formé auprès de plusieurs maîtres en Mongolie, et rencontre, grâce à lui, deux grands chanteurs des plateaux de l’Altaï mongol : Tserendavaa et son fils Tsogtgerel.
Il réunit autour d’eux plusieurs musiciens, aguerris au jazz et aux musiques du monde. »

Tserendavaa & Tsogtgerel : Chants diphoniques de l’Altaï Mongol
Johanni Curtet : Chant diphonique
Jean Baptiste Henry : Bandonéon
Sophie Bernado : Basson, Chant,
Gildas Boclé : Contrebasse
Pierrick Lefranc : Guitare
Maël Guezel : Percussions

Suivre également les liens suivants:

 

JEAN FRANCOIS CASTELL : film MAITRES DE CHANT DIPHONIQUE, FRANCE

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“Maîtres de chant diphonique”

53 minutes – HDV

Un documentaire de JeanFrançois CASTELL

DÖRVÖN BERKH est un ensemble vocal composé de quatre des plus grands maîtres du chant diphonique mongol.
C’est Johanni CURTET, jeune chercheur français en ethnomusicologie, qui a eu l’idée de les réunir pour une série de concerts et enregistrer un disque.
C’est en Mongolie, puis au Mans, à Rennes que nous suivons le travail des uns et des autres : la création des concerts et le travail des grands maîtres, mais aussi les recherches de Johanni qui étudie les sources de cette musique ancestrale et recense ses pratiques et ses modes d’apprentissage.
De la création de la tournée française, jusqu’aux confins des steppes de l’Altaï, ce film nous invite à vivre un voyage musical et ethnographique rare et envoutant.

 

Bande annonce 01’30

Production : Véronique PUYBARET

Images : Jean-François CASTELL 
Sons : Jean-François CASTELL et Johanni CURTET -Musiques : DÖRVON BERKH
Une coproduction : LA CURIEUSE / LES FILMS DU ROCHER /LMTV / TV RENNES 35
Avec le soutien du FONDS POUR LA CRÉATION MUSICALE et de la RÉGION DES PAYS DE LA LOIRE, en partenariat avec le CNC © 2010

Versions disponible VF, VI, VMongol

http://lesfilmsdurocher.free.fr/maitres2.html

JOHANNI CURTET : CHANT DIPHONIQUE KHÖÖMIJ, MONGOLIE

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CHANT DIPHONIQUE KHÖÖMIJ

Avec Johanni Curtet – 2h

Johanni Curtet

Johanni Curtet © O. Gassies

Saviez-vous que tout le monde est capable de sortir plusieurs sons avec une seule voix ? Un khöömijch (chanteur de chant diphonique Mongol) peut à lui seul, chanter un bourdon vocal et réaliser simultanément une mélodie d’harmoniques. Cette acrobatie de la voix est virtuose, mais « diphoner » deux sons superposés est accessible à chacun pourvu de disposer des clés. 

Cet atelier de pratique est enrichi d’éléments théoriques propres à la démarche ethnomusicologique de Johanni, avec enregistrements et images à l’appui. Des exercices de musculation de la bouche, de la langue, une gestion particulière du souffle, un contrôle du son avec et sans diphonie, un enrichissement du timbre de la voix par la recherche d’un timbre vocal guttural, sont des exercices pratiques pour aborder la modulation harmonique dans une perspective mongole. Avec cette méthode, chacun peut repartir avec un bagage lui permettant de pratiquer l’artkhöömij sérieusement chez lui s’il le souhaite. Que l’on soit novice ou déjà initié, en bénéficiant de cet enseignement, chacun peut trouver des méthodes efficaces pour enrichir son timbre vocal, explorer sa voix, diphonique ou non, à travers la découverte de la culture musicale mongole.

Johanni Curtet est doctorant en ethnomusicologie à l’Université Rennes 2. Il mène une activité conjointe de chercheur et de musicien. Ses recherches portent sur les techniques de chant diphonique, l’histoire (origines, spectacularisation, patrimonialisation) et la transmission du khöömij en Mongolie. Depuis 2004, il est lauréat de plusieurs bourses qui lui permettent d’effectuer ses recherches et d’apprendre la langue et la culture mongoles. 

Formé à l’ABC de la « diphonie » par Trân Quang Hai, son apprentissage traditionnel lui a été transmis par D. Tserendavaa dans les steppes de l’Altaï, et B. Odsuren à l’Université d’Art et de Culture d’Oulan Bator. Directeur artistique de l’association Routes Nomades, il accompagne aussi son maître Tserendavaa sur scène. Il enseigne le chant diphonique à l’Université Rennes 2, à la Cité de la Musique, etc. En 2010, à la demande de la commission nationale de la Mongolie pour l’UNESCO, il participe à l’inscription du chant diphonique mongol sur la liste représentative du Patrimoine Culturel Immatériel de l’Humanité. Enfin, il se produit en concert avec le trio Meïkhâneh : des musiques imaginaires, fortement inspirées de ses voyages. 

Plus d’infos sur l’artiste-chercheur :
www.routesnomades.fr
www.ethnomusicologie.fr/jcurtet
www.myspace.com/meikhaneh

http://www.lesorientales.fr/programme-2013/ateliers/chant-diphonique-khoomij/

JOHANNI CURTET : LE PROJET DÖRVÖN BERKH, MONGOLIE

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Le projet Dörvön Berkh

Dorvon-Berkh

Dörvön Berkh signifie en mongol le coup de jeu dans lequel les quatres faces différentes des osselets tombent en même temps. C’est un coup rare dans le jeu d’osselets (le shagai), qui porte chance et qui présage un bel avenir. Dans un sens figuré c’est aussi un terme qui symbolise l’ascension de quatre personnes ensemble vers un sommet de la réalisation sociale. 4 faces du jeu d’osselets, c’est aussi 4 faces du chant diphonique comme on ne l’a jamais entendu, on les lance ensemble pour le premier coup et si la chance les emporte, on y rejouera, sans doute…

Depuis 2004, Johanni Curtet, doctorant sur le chant diphonique Mongol, et Tsend-Ochirin Otgonbaatar, manageur, parcourent la Mongolie ensemble à la rencontre des chanteurs diphoniques. Ils ont monté avec des amis français en Février 2006 l’association Routes Nomades, qui a pour but de produire des concerts de musique traditionnelle mongole en France et en Europe. Le chant diphonique étant devenu leur passion commune, ils ont décidé pendant l’année 2006-2007, d’organiser en Mongolie à Ulaanbaatar, une rencontre de chanteurs sans précédent. Il existe plusieurs maîtres de xöömij en Mongolie et peu d’entre eux ont un jour partagé la même scène. Ils restent bien souvent concurrents les uns des autres. Après avoir proposé à quatre d’entre eux, qui font partie des plus célèbres du pays, de travailler autour d’une rencontre et d’une création d’un concert de chant diphonique, le projet est lancé. Chaque chanteur a montré un grand intérêt dans ce nouveau concept qui n’a jamais encore été joué en Mongolie. Ce projet a été créé à l’Auditorium de la Gallerie d’Art Moderne d’Oulan Bator les 7 et 8 avril 2007. Il a reçu l’aide financière de l’Alliance Française de Mongolie, l’association Routes Nomades, Global Design, la mairie de Chandman, la région de Xovd et le théâtre dramatique de Xovd.

Dorvon-BerkhNous voulons montrer à un large public ce qu’est l’art du xöömij (chant diphonique mongol), sa magie, ses acrobaties vocales, en réunissant quelques-uns des meilleurs chanteurs de Mongolie, capables d’imaginer un univers entre tradition et modernité. L’auditeur sera plongé dans le monde des harmoniques, des possibilités de la voix humaine et pourra le temps d’un concert, se laisser séduire par l’art xöömij.

Nanjidiin Sengedorj

SengedorjIl est né en 1948, une année de la souris, à Emgen, dans la province de Chandman, région de Xovd en Mongolie. Depuis 1975 il travaille au Théâtre dramatique de la ville de Xovd où il réside et y a exercé toutes les professions : de régisseur, il est passé par le métier de décorateur, celui de comédien, puis chanteur de xöömij pour finir directeur. Sengedorj, après le fameux chanteur Sundui est le deuxième chanteur de xöömij à avoir reçu une décoration du président de Mongolie pour son art.

Dès l’âge de six ans, il a appris le xöömij en imitant ses aïeux et en gardant les bêtes, dans le contexte de la vie nomade des bergers de l’Altaï. Comme Tserendavaa, il fait partie de ceux qui ont considérablement développé le chant diphonique dans les vingt dernières années. Il enseigne le chant diphonique dans son théâtre et dans une école de musique et de danse traditionnelle, ouverte à Xovd depuis deux ans.

Depuis les années 1980, il joue dans le monde entier : France, Allemagne, Grande-Bretagne, USA, Russie, Corée, Japon, Kazakhstan… Il pratique trois types de xöömij : le xarxiraa (xöömij profond), le xamriin xarxiraa (xöömij profond nasalisé), et le shingen xöömij (xöömij au ton clairsemé). Le « xöömij baryton » est le nom qu’il donne à son style personnel. Il s’accompagne du luth tovshuur à tête de cuiller zazal et joue de la flûte tsuur, un instrument spécifique à la région de l’Altaï que peu de musiciens pratiquent actuellement. Il a appris la tsuur auprès de Narantsogt, une référence incontestée en Mongolie.

 Discographie

 Mongolie: Musique et chants de l’Altai  (Orstom-Selaf Ceto 811, 1986, Paris)

Jargalant Altai. Xoomii and other vocal and instrumental music from Mongolia (Pan Records Pan 2050CD, 1996, Pays-Bas)

The spirit of the steppes: Throat-singing from Tuva and beyond(Nascente NSCD 058, 2000, Londres)

Mongol Nutgiin Calxi (MOCN-0102, 2001, Japon)

Tunganar Buyant (MOCN-0202, 2002, Japon)  

Baatariin Odsuren

OdsurenIl est né en 1949 au village d’Aladarxaan dans la région de Zavkhan, en Mongolie. Il réside actuellement à Oulan Bator où il est professeur de xöömij à l’université d’Art et de Culture et à l’université Nationale Mongole. Odsuren a appris le chant diphonique avec Jamtsiin Choyn. Il l’enseigne depuis les années 1988 et reste le seul à le transmettre dans un cadre universitaire.

Son père, qui était moine bouddhiste, lui a enseigné la voix de onzad, cette voix grave qui sert à réciter les prières. Il participe à des concerts internationaux, en soliste ou avec un ensemble: France, USA, Russie, Japon…

Il pratique douze types de xöömij dont certains sont de son invention: le xargia xöömij (xöömij profond), le gilsen xöömij, le tsuurai xöömij(xöömij échoïdal), le yelzsen tsuurai xöömij (xöömij échoïdal trillé), leshuluun tsuurai xöömij (xöömij échoïdal droit), le xamriin tsuurai xöömij(xöömij nasalisé droit), le dorgo xöömij (xöömij « gargarisé »), lexerxeree xöömij, l’isgeree xöömij (xöömij sifflé), le dangildax xöömij(xöömij rythmique monosyllabique), le doshgiraa xöömij (xöömij labial vibré) et le xosmoljin xöömij (xöömij combiné). Il s’accompagne de la vièle ekel, du luth tovshuur et joue des guimbardes xoson xuur (en bambou) et tömör xuur (en métal).

 Filmographie

 Les bardes de Gengis Khan (réal. Nadine Assoune Lewy, La Huit production/Audiovisuel Muzzik, 52mn couleur, 1998, France)

Dashdorjiin Tserendavaa

tserendavaaIl est né en 1955 dans la province de Chandman dans la région de Xovd, en Mongolie. Il réside à Chandman depuis toujours et vit comme éleveur nomade avec un millier de bêtes dans son cheptel (chevaux, chameaux, chèvres, moutons, vaches et yacks confondus). Son apprentissage du chant diphonique s’est fait à l’âge de six ans, dans le cadre pastoral par l’imitation de son entourage. Ses professeurs ont été Olmiibat, Maxanchuluun, Margat, Sundui et Tsedee. Dans sa famille, on est musicien depuis quatres générations. Il a commencé son métier de chanteur professionnel à l’âge de vingt-quatre ans. Depuis les années 1980, il joue dans le monde entier : France, Grande-Bretagne, Portugal, USA, Russie, Japon…

Il pratique sept types de xöömij : l’uruuliin xöömij (xöömij avec battements de lèvres), le tagnai xöömij (xöömij palatal trillé), lebagalzuuriin xöömij (xöömij de gorge), le xamriin xöömij (xöömij nasalisé), le tseejni xondiin xöömij (xöömij de poitrine), le xargia xöömij(xöömij profond), et le xosmoljin xöömij (xöömij combiné) qui est le nom qu’il donne à son style personnel. Tserendavaa s’accompagne du luthtovshuur et de la vièle ekel. Il transmet le xöömij à trois de ses enfants : deux de ses fils, Tsogtgerel (18 ans) et Xasha (10 ans), et une de ses filles, Otgonjargal (16 ans).
Suite

Nerguigiin Ganzorig

GanzorigNé en 1974 à Zuunxaraa dans la région de Selenge, il réside aujourd’hui à Oulan Bator. Ganzorig a appris le xöömij en autodidacte. En écoutant les chanteurs à la radio nationale mongole, il les imitait jusqu’à parvenir au meilleur résultat. Il commença par apprendre la vièle moriin xuur mais développa beaucoup plus la pratique diphonique, car des opportunités pour jouer à l’étranger se présentaient rapidement. Après avoir maîtrisé les styles principaux, lexarxiraa et l’isgeree xöömij, ainsi qui leurs variantes ornementales, il s’est spécialisé dans l’interprétation des chants de louanges magtaal. Très tôt, il se met à composer ses propres chants de louanges, calqués sur le modèle traditionnel mongol.

Son activité dans l’ensemble Altaï-Khangaï depuis 1996 l’a amené régulièrement à jouer dans de nombreux pays : quatre ans de résidence en Allemagne, trois ans en Hollande, et des concerts ponctuels en France, USA, Suisse, Autriche et Maroc. Il s’accompagne du luth tovshuur à tête de cygne et de la vièle à tête de cheval moriin xuur. Ganzorig représente la nouvelle génération de chanteurs diphoniques et reste l’un des meilleurs tant il a su combiner les styles de son pays mais aussi ceux de Touva.

Discographie d’Altai-Khangai

Naariits Bulye, Let’s Dance. Mongolian Khuuryn tatlaga (Pan Records Pan 2061, 1997, Pays Bas) 

Gone with the wind. Songs of mongolian steppes (Window to Europe WTE CD 002, 1998, Pays Bas) 

Melodious Tree (Autoproduction AKA09001, 2000, France) 

Naadam (Autoproduction, 2006, Mongolie)

 http://www.routesnomades.fr/le-projet-dorvon-berkh.html

CHINESE WEBSITE OF THROAT SINGING , OVERTONE SINGING in Chinese

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http://humai.99.thmz.com/ 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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《啸旨》探呼麦 双声艺术
“啸”义考辩  呼麦趋势
啸赋(晋) 少林佛门狮子吼
长啸口哨呼麦 呼啸—道家的法术
 ※巫啸与呼麦 呼啸心与心的交流
最后的图瓦人 呼啸-女性的悲吟
呼麦漫谈 ※虎啸金钟罩
喉歌者说 中古文人的啸
啸之本义 中国气功密咒
 呼麦在蒙古失传……
不可复制的声音 视频,中央电视台民歌中国说呼麦
☆ 四座山 自拉自呼
鸿雁 呼麦及男低音
少女和狼 ※根据新疆和木地区图瓦民间故事创作,多种呼麦技巧
魂归草原 ※原创歌曲,长调、短调、呼麦的综合运用。
百合其其格 ※根据蒙古民间故事《黄骠马》创作。
草深林密 ※经典呼麦技巧。
云青马 ※根据民间故事创作。集呼麦、长调,世界最低的歌声。
嘎达梅林 ※改编歌曲,长调、短调、呼麦的综合运用。
牧羊人 ※原创歌曲,长调、短调、呼麦的综合运用。
金花公主 ※原创歌曲,长调、短调的综合运用。

呼麦简介

“呼麦”,是一种喉音艺术,这个名词是根据英文翻译后再翻译过来的,其实,应该采用由呼麦艺术保持者中国新疆图瓦人著名的村落“和木”这一名词比较贴切。呼麦艺术于上世纪90年代在全球最封闭的图瓦地区被发现,迅速介绍到全世界,这是上古时期先人遗留下来的一种高超发声艺术。图瓦人运用特殊的声音技巧,一人同时唱出两个声部,形成罕见的多声部形态。目前,和图瓦最接近的蒙古地区迅速开始学习和引进,形成了一种专业演出团体和个人的保留节目。呼麦演唱者在低音的衬托下发出带有金属声的高音声部,获得无比美妙的声音效果。让我们共同来研究他、保护他、发扬他。

最新呼麦mp3

 2011.06.12 

无字金刚经 阿弥陀佛 北京的金山 毛主席语录 和风吹来 社会主义好
草原之夜 赛  马 鄂伦春小调 北京的金山 四季调 苏珊娜
孟姜女 999朵玫瑰 刘三姐 敬爱的毛主席 无锡景  

 探索阶段:

 以下都是几年前学习和探索阶段的作品。

■ 旋律呼麦
 呼麦作品
 艺术呼麦
■ 艺术呼麦
 即兴呼麦
 即兴呼麦
 即兴呼麦
 即兴呼麦
 即兴呼麦
 名家呼麦
草原的早晨 草原之夜 赛  马 呼麦牧歌 沂蒙山 牧歌呼麦 刘三姐 二月里来

北京的金山

阿弥陀佛

鄂伦春小调

毛主席语录

999朵玫瑰

四季调

无锡景

敬爱的毛主席

不灭的泡泡

社会主义好

无字金刚经

苏珊娜

美国小调

超低音呼麦

梦影水花

倔强和顺从

梦幻世界

无限的星空

飞去的云

黎明静悄悄

野蜂飞舞

吉  祥

沙尘暴

无名的烦恼

永恒的怀念

一切都会变

蓝天白云

和煦的风

草原的呼唤

闭口作声

寄语白云

远  去

梦幻奇景

静静的草原

星星月亮

一望无边

冲向蓝天

秋  思

思故乡

平 静

大呼小叫

空明一片

静静的

无言的赞歌

随想曲

牧   笛

草原的早晨

探索者

特长呼麦

永不停息

叹往昔

天地悠悠

天  哪

脚  印

反  思

夜茫茫

冥冥之中

飞  吧

人世间

空惆怅

枫  叶

侧耳细听

第三者

悠  闲

胡格吉勒图 《天驹》 《呼麦》  

阿茹娜

蒙古国呼麦

   
   
 

   蒙古长调

   简   介

 

  蒙古族长调是一种独特的演唱形式,以优美舒缓的旋律和雄浑壮阔的格调构成深邃的意境,无愧为蒙古族音乐之魂。但是,有人认为:蒙古族长调的演唱方法至今仍处于自然的摸索阶段,没有形成系统的、科学的演唱方法教学理论体系,探索蒙古族长调的科学演唱方法是一个亟待解决的问题。 我认为这一说法脱离了原生态音乐的本质,原生态艺术就应该丰富多彩,各具特色,硬把他进行所谓的标准化、统一化、科学化那还有什么原生态艺术可言?呼麦艺术也是一样。
   蒙古民族在悠久的历史长河中,创造了自己辉煌的文明,并以能歌善舞而著称于世。蒙古族长调这一具有游牧文化和地域文化特征的独特演唱形式,以它特有的语言述说着这个民族的历史,演绎着这个民族繁衍生息的足迹。千百年来,草原上的人们用长调歌唱生活,赞美自然,抒发胸怀,祈祝未来。这个古老而又有时代特征的音乐形式经过广大的蒙古族民众和卓越的歌手一代又一代传唱至今。它已深深地扎根在人们的心中,那优美舒缓的旋律和雄浑壮阔的格调构成深邃的意境,无愧为蒙古族音乐之魂。

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THEODORE C.LEVIN & MICHAEL E.EDGERTON: THE THROAT SINGERS OF TUVA

Standard

The Throat Singers of Tuva    

September 20, 1999Testing the limits of vocal ingenuity, throat-singers can create sounds unlike anything in ordinary speech and song–carrying two musical lines simultaneously, say, or harmonizing with a waterfall

 By Theodore C. Levin and Michael E. Edgerton


From atop one of the rocky escarpments that crisscross the south Siberian grasslands and taiga forests of Tuva, one’s first impression is of an unalloyed silence as vast as the land itself. Gradually the ear habituates to the absence of human activity. Silence dissolves into a subtle symphony of buzzing, bleating, burbling, cheeping, whistling–our onomatopoeic shorthand for the sounds of insects, beasts, water, birds, wind. The polyphony unfolds slowly, its colors and rhythms by turns damped and reverberant as they wash over the land’s shifting contours.For the seminomadic herders who call Tuva home, the soundscape inspires a form of music that mingles with these ambient murmurings. Ringed by mountains, far from major trade routes and overwhelmingly rural, Tuva is like a musical Olduvai Gorge–a living record of a protomusical world, where natural and human-made sounds blend. 

Among the many ways the pastoralists interact with and represent their aural environment, one stands out for its sheer ingenuity: a remarkable singing technique in which a single vocalist produces two distinct tones simultaneously. One tone is a low, sustained fundamental pitch, similar to the drone of a bagpipe. The second is a series of flutelike harmonics, which resonate high above the drone and may be musically stylized to represent such sounds as the whistle of a bird, the syncopated rhythms of a mountain stream or the lilt of a cantering horse.

In the local languages, the general term for this singing is kh鲻meior khoomii, from the Mongolian word for “throat.” In English it is commonly referred to as throat-singing. Some contemporary Western musicians also have mastered the practice and call it overtone singing, harmonic singing or harmonic chant. Such music is at once a part of an expressive culture and an artifact of the acoustics of the human voice. Trying to understand both these aspects has been a challenge for Western students of music, and each of us–one a musical ethnographer (Levin), the other a composer with an interest in extended vocal techniques (Edgerton)–has had to traverse the unfamiliar territory of the other.

Sound Mimesis

In Tuva, legends about the origins of throat-singing assert that humankind learned to sing in such a way long ago. The very first throat-singers, it is said, sought to duplicate natural sounds whose timbres, or tonal colors, are rich in harmonics, such as gurgling water and swishing winds. Although the true genesis of throat-singing as practiced today is obscure, Tuvan pastoral music is intimately connected to an ancient tradition of animism, the belief that natural objects and phenomena have souls or are inhabited by spirits.

According to Tuvan animism, the spirituality of mountains and rivers is manifested not only through their physical shape and location but also through the sounds they produce or can be made to produce by human agency. The echo off a cliff, for example, may be imbued with spiritual significance. Animals, too, are said to express spiritual power sonically. Humans can assimilate this power by imitating their sounds.

Among the pastoralists, emulating ambient sounds is as natural as speaking. Throat-singing is not taught formally (as music often is) but rather picked up, like a language. A large percentage of male herders can throat-sing, although not everyone is tuneful. A taboo against female throat-singers, based on a belief that it causes infertility, is gradually receding, and younger women are beginning to practice the technique as well. The popularity of throat-singing among Tuvan herders seems to have arisen from a coincidence of culture and geography: on the one hand, the animistic sensitivity to the subtleties of sound, especially its timbre, and on the other, the ability of reinforced harmonics to project over the broad open landscape of the steppe. In fact, two decades ago concert performances were uncommon because most Tuvans regarded the music as too “down home” to spend money on. But now it leads a parallel public life. Professional ensembles have achieved celebrity status, and the favorite singers are symbols of national cultural identity. 

The most virtuosic practices of throat-singing are concentrated in Tuva (now officially called Tyva), an autonomous republic within Russia on its border with Mongolia, and in the surrounding Altai region, particularly western Mongolia. But vocally reinforced harmonics can also be heard in disparate parts of central Asia. Among the Bashkirs, a Turkic-speaking people from the Ural Mountains, musicians sing melodies with breathy reinforced harmonics in a style called uzliau. Epic singers in Uzbekistan, Karakalpakstan and Kazakhstan introduce hints of reinforced harmonics in oral poetry, and certain forms of Tibetan Buddhist chant feature a single reinforced harmonic sustained over a fundamental pitch. Beyond Asia, the use of vocal overtones in traditional music is rare but not unknown. It turns up, for example, in the singing of Xhosa women in South Africa and, in an unusual case of musical improvisation, in the 1920s cowboy songs of Texan singer Arthur Miles, who substituted overtone singing for the customary yodeling.

The ways in which singers reinforce harmonics and the acoustical properties of these sounds were little documented until a decade ago, when Tuvan and Mongolian music began to reach a worldwide audience. Explaining the process is best done with the aid of a widely used model of the voice, the source-filter model. The source–the vocal folds–provides the raw sonic energy, which the filter–the vocal tract–shapes into vowels, consonants and musical notes.

 

Hooked on Harmonics

At its most basic, sound is a wave whose propagation changes pressure and related variables–such as the position of molecules in a solid or fluid medium–from moment to moment. In speech and song the wave is set in motion when the vocal folds in the larynx disturb the smoothly flowing airstream out from (or into) the lungs. The folds open and close periodically, causing the air pressure to oscillate at a fundamental frequency, or pitch. Because this vibration is not sinusoidal, it also generates a mixture of pure tones, or harmonics, above the fundamental pitch. Harmonics occur at whole number multiples of the fundamental frequency. The lowest fundamental in operatic repertoire, for example, is a low C note whose conventional frequency is 65.4 hertz; its harmonics are 130.8 hertz, 196.2 hertz and so on. The strength of the harmonics diminishes as their frequencies rise, such that the loudness falls by 12 decibels (a factor of roughly 16 in sonic energy) with each higher octave (a factor of two in pitch

The second component of the source-filter model, the vocal tract, is basically a tube through which the sound travels. Yet the air within the tract is not a passive medium that simply conveys sound to the outside air. It has its own acoustical properties–in particular, a natural tendency to resonate at certain frequencies. Like the whistling sound made by blowing across the top of a glass, these resonances, known as formants, are set in motion by the buzz from the vocal folds. Their effect is to amplify or dampen sound from the folds at distinctive pitches, transforming the rather boring buzz into a meaningful clutch of tones.

The sculpting of sound does not end once it escapes from the mouth. As the wave wafts outward, it loses energy as it spreads over a larger area and sets the freestanding air in motion. This external filtering, known as the radiation characteristic, dampens lower frequencies to a greater extent than it does higher frequencies. When combined, the source, filter and radiation characteristic produce sound whose harmonics decrease in power at the rate of six decibels (dB) per octave–except for peaks around certain frequencies, the formants [see “The Acoustics of the Singing Voice,” by Johan Sundberg; Scientific American, March 1977; and “The Human Voice,” by Robert T. Sataloff; Scientific American,December 1992]. 

In normal speech and song, most of the energy is concentrated at the fundamental frequency, and harmonics are perceived as elements of timbre–the same quality that distinguishes the rich sound of a violin from the purer tones of a flute–rather than as different pitches. In throat-singing, however, a single harmonic gains such strength that it is heard as a distinct, whistlelike pitch. Such harmonics often sound disembodied. Are they resonating in the vocal tract of the singer, in the surrounding physical space or merely in the mind of the listener? Recent research by us and by others has made it clear that the vocally reinforced harmonics are not an artifact of perception but in fact have a physical origin.

 

Biofeedback

The mechanism of this reinforcement is not fully understood. But it seems to involve three interrelated components: tuning a harmonic in the middle of a very narrow and sharply peaked formant; lengthening the closing phase of the opening-and-closing cycle of the vocal folds; and narrowing the range of frequencies over which the formant will affect harmonics. Each of these processes represents a dramatic increase of the coupling between source and filter. Yet despite a widespread misconception, they do not involve any physiology unique to Turco-Mongol peoples; anybody can, given the effort, learn to throat-sing.

To tune a harmonic, the vocalist adjusts the fundamental frequency of the buzzing sound produced by the vocal folds, so as to bring the harmonic into alignment with a formant. This procedure is the sonic equivalent of lifting or lowering a ladder in order to move one of its higher steps to a certain height. Acoustic analysis has verified the precision of the tuning by comparing two different harmonics, the first tuned to the center of a formant peak and the second detuned slightly. The former is much stronger. Singers achieve this tuning through biofeedback: they raise or lower the fundamental pitch until they hear the desired harmonic resonate at maximum amplitude.

Throat-singers tweak not only the rate at which the vocal folds open and close but also the manner in which they do so. Each cycle begins with the folds in contact and the glottis–the space between the folds–closed. As the lungs expel air, pressure builds to push the folds apart until the glottis opens. Elastic and aerodynamic forces pull them shut again, sending a puff of air into the vocal tract. Electroglottographs, which use transducers placed on the neck to track the cycle, show that throat-singers keep the folds open for a smaller fraction of the cycle and shut for longer. The more abrupt closure naturally puts greater energy into the higher harmonics. Moreover, the longer closing phase helps to maintain the resonance in the vocal tract by, in essence, reducing sound leakage back down the windpipe. Both effects lead to a spectrum that falls off less drastically with frequency, which further accentuates the desired harmonics

  

The third component of harmonic isolation is the assortment of techniques that throat-singers use to increase the amplification and selectivity provided by the vocal tract. By refining the resonant properties normally used to articulate vowels, vocalists reposition, heighten and sharpen the formants [see Forming Formants]. In so doing, they strengthen the harmonics that align with the narrow formant peak, while simultaneously weakening the harmonics that lie outside of this narrow peak. Thus, a single overtone can project above the others. In addition, singers move their jaws forward and protrude, narrow and round their lips. These contortions reduce energy loss and feed the resonances back to the vocal-fold vibration, further enhancing the resonant peak.

In a study of both Tuvan and Western overtone singers conducted at the University of Wisconsin’s hospitals and clinics with support from the National Center for Voice and Speech, video fluoroscopy (motion x-ray) and nasoendoscopy (imaging the vocal folds using a miniature camera) have confirmed that singers manipulate their vocal tracts to shift the frequency of a formant and align it with a harmonic. By reinforcing different harmonics in succession, they can sing a melody. The nine musicians in the study demonstrated at least four specific ways to accomplish the shifting. Other methods may also be possible.

 

In the first, the tip of the tongue remains behind the upper teeth while the midtongue rises to intone successively higher harmonics. Additionally, vocalists fine-tune the formant by periodically opening their lips slightly. In Tuvan the style of music produced by this means is known as sygyt (“whistle”). In the second method, singers move the tongue forward, an act that in normal speech changes the vowel sound /o/ (“hoe”) to /i/ (“heed”). The lowest formant drops, and the second rises. By precisely controlling how much the formants separate, a Tuvan musician can tune each to a separate harmonic–thereby reinforcing not one but two pitches simultaneously, as sometimes occurs in the kh鲻mei style.

 

The third approach entails movement in the throat rather than in the mouth. For lower harmonics, vocalists place the base of the tongue near the rear of the throat. For mid-to-high harmonics, they move the base of the tongue forward until a gap appears in the vallecula–the space between the rear of the tongue and the epiglottis (the flap of cartilage that prevents food from entering the lungs). For the highest harmonics, the epiglottis swings forward to close the vallecula.

In the fourth method, vocalists widen the mouth in precise increments. The acoustical effect is to shorten the vocal tract, raising the frequency of the first formant. The uppermost harmonic that can be reinforced is limited primarily by radiation losses, which worsen as the mouth widens. Depending on the pitch of the fundamental, a singer can isolate up to the 12th harmonic. Tuvans combine this technique with a second vocal source to create the kargyraa style, in which one may reinforce harmonics as unbelievably high as the 43rd harmonic.

 

Two Voices

This additional source is another fascinating aspect of throat-singing. Singers draw on organs other than the vocal folds to generate a second raw sound, typically at what seems like an impossibly low pitch. Many such organs are available throughout the vocal tract. Kargyraa utilizes flexible structures above the vocal folds: the so-called false folds (paired tissues that occur directly above the true folds and are also capable of closing the airstream); arytenoid cartilages (which sit in the rear of the throat and, by rotating side to side and back and forth, help to control phonation); aryepiglottic folds (tissue that connects the arytenoids and the epiglottis); and the epiglottic root (the lower part of the epiglottic cartilage).

A different technique, which produces much the same sound but probably does not figure in kargyraa, combines a normal glottal pitch with the low-frequency, pulselike vibration known as vocal fry.

Because kargyraa resembles the sound of Tibetan Buddhist chant, some researchers have used the term “chant mode” to describe it. It generally, though not always, assumes a 2:1 frequency ratio, with supraglottal closure at every other vocal-fold closure. A typical fundamental pitch would be the C at 130.8 hertz, with the false folds vibrating one octave below at 65.4 hertz. Spectral analysis shows that when a singer switches into chant mode, the number of frequency components doubles, verifying that the second source is periodic and half the normal pitch. Chant mode also affects the resonant properties of the vocal tract. Because use of the false folds shortens the vocal tract by one centimeter (about half an inch), formant frequencies shift higher or lower depending on the location of the constriction on the selected formant.

 

  

Image: Theodore C. Levin
SHAMANS in Tuva use a variety of sound makers as tools of spiritual healing. Animism has shaped Tuvan music and has helped to keep throat-singing a vibrant custom.

Another cultural preference is for extended pauses between breaths of throat-singing. (These breaths may last as long as 30 seconds.) To a Western listener, the pauses seem unmusically long, impeding the flow of successive melodic phrases. But Tuvan musicians do not conceive of phrases as constituting a unitary piece of music. Rather each phrase conveys an independent sonic image. The long pauses provide singers with time to listen to the ambient sounds and to formulate a response–as well as, of course, to catch their breath.

The stylistic variations all reflect the core aesthetic idea of sound mimesis. And throat-singing is just one means used by herder-hunters to interact with their natural acoustic environment. Tuvans employ a range of vocalizations to imitate the calls and cries of wild and domestic animals. They play such instruments as the ediski, a single reed designed to mimic a female musk deer; khirlee, a thin piece of wood that is spun like a propeller to emulate the sound of wind; amyrga, a hunting horn used to approximate the mating call of a stag; and chadagan, a zither that sings in the wind when Tuvan herders place it on the roofs of their yurts. Players of the khomus, or jew’s harp, re-create not only natural sounds, like that of moving or dripping water, but also human sounds, including speech itself. Good khomus players can encode texts that an experienced listener can decode.

Yet it is throat-singing that Tuvans recognize as the quintessential achievement of their mimesis, the revered element of an expressive language that begins where verbal language ends. For the herders, it expresses feelings of exultation and independence that words cannot. And as is often a defining feature of traditional art, inner freedom blooms within the strictest of constraints–in this case, the physical limits of the harmonic series.

 


Further ListeningTUVA: VOICES FROM THE CENTER OF ASIA. Smithsonian Folkways, 1990.

SIXTY HORSES IN MY HERD. Huun-Huur-Tu. Shanachie Records, 1993.

HEARING SOLAR WINDS. David Hykes and the Harmonic Choir. Ocora, 1994. (Distributed in the U.S. by Harmonia Mundi.)

TUVA, AMONG THE SPIRITS: SOUND, MUSIC, AND NATURE IN SAKHA AND TUVA. Smithsonian Folkways, 1999.

WHERE YOUNG GRASS GROWS. Huun-Huur-Tu. Shanachie Records, 1999.

MUSICAL CLIPS AND FURTHER INFORMATION are on the Scientific American site and on the Friends of Tuva site


Further Information:

ACOUSTICS AND PERCEPTION OF OVERTONE SINGING.Gerrit Bloothooft, Eldrid Bringmann, Marieke van Capellen, Jolanda B. van Luipen and Koen P. Thomassen in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 92, No. 4, Part 1, pages 1827?836; October 1992.

REISE INS ASIATISCHE TUWA. Otto J. M鋘chen-Helfen. Verlag Der Bucherkreis, 1931. Published in English as Journey to Tuva: An Eyewitness Account of Tannu-Tuva in 1929. Translated by Alan Leighton. Ethnographics Press, University of Southern California, 1992.

PRINCIPLES OF VOICE PRODUCTION. Ingo R. Titze. Prentice Hall, 1994.

A TUVAN PERSPECTIVE ON THROAT SINGING. Mark van Tongeren in Oideion: The Performing Arts Worldwide, Vol. 2, pages 293?12. Edited by Wim van Zanten and Marjolijn van Roon. Centre of Non-Western Studies, University of Leiden, 1995.

THE HUNDRED THOUSAND FOOLS OF GOD: MUSICAL TRAVELS IN CENTRAL ASIA (and Queens, New York). Theodore Levin. Indiana University Press.

http://humai.99.thmz.com/new_page_3.htm

THEODORE C.LEVIN & MICHAEL E.EDGERTON : The Throat Singers of TUVA

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http://www.soundtransformations.co.uk/scientificamericanarticle1999.htm

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The Throat Singers of Tuva; September 1999; Scientific American Magazine; by Levin, Edgerton; 8 Page(s)

From atop one of the rocky escarpments that crisscross the south Siberian grasslands and taiga forests of Tuva, one’s first impression is of an unalloyed silence as vast as the land itself. Gradually the ear habituates to the absence of human activity. Silence dissolves into a subtle symphony of buzzing, bleating, burbling, cheeping, whistling-our onomatopoeic shorthand for the sounds of insects, beasts, water, birds, wind. The polyphony unfolds slowly, its colors and rhythms by turns damped and reverberant as they wash over the land’s shifting contours.

For the seminomadic herders who call Tuva home, the soundscape inspires a form of music that mingles with these ambient murmurings. Ringed by mountains, far from major trade routes and overwhelmingly rural, Tuva is like a musical Olduvai Gorge-a living record of a protomusical world, where natural and human-made sounds blend.

A.N.AKSENOV: TUVIN FOLK MUSIC

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TUVIN FOLK MUSIC By A. N. Aksenov

Editor’s Note. The following consists of excerpts from A. N. Aksenov’s Tuvinskaia narodnaia muzyka (Moscow, 1964), to date the only book de­voted in a study of a single Siberian music culture.

Aksenov (1909‑62) was initially a composer. He graduated from Moscow Conservatory In 1931, became a member of the Union of Soviet Composers the following year and remained in Moscow until 1943. During that war year he was sent to the city of Kizil, centre of the Tuvin People’s Republic, later to become the Tuvin Autonomous Region of the Russian Federated Soviet Socialist Republic, largest administrative unit of the USSR. In Tuvin country Aksenov collected a large body of folk music, and when he returned to Moscow in 1944 he began to study ethnomusicology seriously, continuing his research on Tuvin music until his death. E. Gippius, Aksenov’s advisor. In his Introduction to Aksenov’s post­humous book, (p. 11) cites tuyinskaia narodnaia muzyka as being “useful and important for musicologists and musicians as well as for ethnographers, historians and folklorists”.

The sections included here are excerpted from two sections of the book: first, a general discussion of Tuvin folksong and then a presenta­tion of the four styles of the extraordinary ‑Tuvin manner of throat‑ singing, i.e. a way of one man’s singing two parts simultaneously.

The Tuvins, who speak a Turkic language, joined the USSR In 1944 dissolving the Tuvin Peoples’ Republic begun in 1921. The 1959 census indicated a population of ca. 100,000 Tuvins in the USSR; they also live in adjacent Mongolia.

Tuvin folk songs are primarily performed on holidays, during young people’s promenades and while nomadizing or on excursions into      the steppe. On holidays any songs are sung. No observer of Tuvin musical folklore has remarked on songs assigned to specific holidays or on special wedding or funeral songs, and I have not succeeded in finding, them either.

One of the greatest Tuvin holidays is New Year’s (shagai) celebrated on the night of January 22nd. In addition New Year’s and domestic holidays each region (Khoshun) marked its own, local festivals. Noted singers, storytellers and instrumentalists gathered in the Khoshun centres for these holidays….

At the khoshun festivities the noions (apparently clan, elders or chiefs‑‑MS) organized singing contests, sometimes lasting all day. The performers chose their own songs. The winner or best singer was served liquor (arak) and was given the title kha (noions singer). As a mark of acquiring this title a special attachment of coloured stone (or glass) was affixed to the singer’s hat, after which the kha took an oath of allegianceto the noion. Among the kha’s duties was the singing of panegyric songs which accompanied the serving of arak to the noion. The kha’s obligations also included fulfilling small chores for the noion. If the kha appeared at fault in some way or sang little and badly, the noion took away his title, struck him in the face with a shaaga (a leather belt for beating on the cheeks) and drove him out. The singer them became a commoner again.

Instrumentalists also competed at the noion’s contests. They travelled from village to village earning their keep this way. Instrumentalists principally played song melodies, varied in virtuoso style. A special genre of Tuvin instrumental music consists of programmatic pieces. Contemporary instrumentalists only know two of these: “Oskus‑kasa” (“The Orphan Goose”) and “Buga, shari” (Oxen, Bullocks”). Both pieces are played only on the igil (a fiddle) and only by the most talented instrumentalists: these performers are highly esteemed.

Not only instrumentalists, but also singers of tales (tool, toolchi; “tale”, “reciter of tales”) travelled from settlement (aal) to settlement. Like the instrumentalists, the toolchis were ordinary folk. From time to time they dropped their households and moved off to tell tales in nearby settlements, usually within the boundaries of a small region. Their arrival was also associated with various festivities. The people invited the toolchi to their tents, fed them abundantly and gave them gifts (furs etc.) Crowds gathered in the tent in which the toolchi stayed. The spectators listened to the tales with unabated attentiveness for several consecutive days with breaks for meals. One tale lasted two to three days.

Some genres of Tuvin tales (heroic and some fairytales) are recited melodically, with a recitative tune and rhythmic prose text. These are often accompanied by the chadagan, a stringed Instrument (zither‑‑MS), which either follows the melody of the vocal recitation (continuously or sporadically) or plays Instrumental interludes periodically interrupting the vocal recitation. Other genres of Tuvin tales (domestic, animal stories and some fairytales) are not performed melodically, but are simply narrated.

The heroic tale “Dash‑khuren a’ ttig Tanaa‑Kherel” . ..is built on a stepwise descending melody with phrases built on fourths. Each new text phrase of the tale begins with the high melodic pitches, and then descends gradually in the range of a twelfth, rising at the end of the phrase to the higher pitches, from which the next phrase begins. Along with such melodically developed forms of recitation one also finds Tuvin heroic tales built not on melodies but rather on repetitions of short tunes of three or four pitches in a narrow range.

Games and competitive sports are an unchanging feature of Tuvin holidays, both old and contemporary. These include khuresh (wrestling matches) and a’t khooleer (horsemanship contests), accompanied by special musical recitations. Wrestling (in which any devices but blows are allowed) is very popular among all strata of the population, irrespective of social status. The number of contestants is not restricted, usually consisting of 8, 16, 32, 64 or 128 wrestlers. The wrestling match lasts many hours, to the unabated, tense attention of spectators. Wrestlers appear with seconds (salikchi) dressed in bright national cloaks, with six to eight salikchi for 30 to 40 wrestlers.

The wrestlers are dressed in costumes of rawhide or other material (ringed with rawhide to protect the hands and body from injury. The costume consists of shorts and a short jacket with long sleeves barely covering the back just below the shoulder‑blades. The jacket is fastened by a rawhide thong so that the opponent can’t jerk it. The legs are covered with Leather maimaks (embroidered boots with turned‑down sharp‑ended socks). Before the beginning of the match two equal groups of wrestlers gradually approach from different corners with a particular dance like gait depicting “the flight of the eagle”, the eagle being the symbol of strength and agility. They caper in a zigzag manner from foot to foot and smoothly clap their hands to the rhythm of the jumps to imitate the rustle of wings. Approaching each other, both groups return to opposite corners of the field with the same dance like gait.

The salikchis approach each group taking alternate wrestlers by the hand and leading them to the centre of the field. Next, both salikchis come forth and simultaneously intone the traditional “call” in the form of an improvised melodic recitation, often concluded by a speech. In the “call” the salikchis praise the strength and agility of their wrestlers and their former victories.

Our strong man has com, bring out his opponent!

This outstandingly famous strongman has taken part in 64 matches!

Bring out our strongman’s opponent! There he’s come!

Be careful, be careful! This is an experienced strongman!

He has taken part in 64 matches’. He is as strong as a tiger and a lion!

Be careful, be careful, grab hold!

This singing appearance of the salikchi is limited only to one episode of the match: the appearance of the wrestler in the arena. Each salikchi improvises melodies for this recitation in his own way. They vary considerably in melodic style and cannot be assigned to one specific type….. The wrestler’s success depends considerably on the salikhchi. He encourages his wrestler with words and gestures, ridicules the opponent, amuses the audience and between jokes warns his wrestler of the intentions and tricks of his opponent, whom He observes.

… No less popular is another Tuvin sport: horse‑racing … several neighbouring khoshuns compete in horseracing, in which 10 to 100 riders take part… and up to 200 to 300 in large races. The ride to the gate is accompanied by the riders’ improvised song in recitatory style. In thesesongs the riders praise the endurance, strength and other qualities of their horses just as the ….salikchis praised … the wrestlers. However, of late the riders arriving at the gate most often sing recitatory melodies without words.. . The voice of the riders, resounding far into the steppe mixes into a long multi‑voiced uninterrupted roar.

… After the winners are decided. … a ceremonial procession of the participants is begun. At this time a singer comes forth, holding a saucerfull of arak in upraised palms, covered with a bright silk kerchief. The singer tenders the cup of arak to the winning rider, and in a solemn song, praises the winning horse;

Its eyes are like two saucers of arak.

lts’ breath Is like mist in the valley,

Its gait is like a strong wind in the steppe, etc

Along with horseracing and wrestling, marksmanship must also be included among sports beloved of the Tuvins. No special songs were devoted to these games, but the spectators often cheered on the contestants with shouts or songs of the kozliamik genre (a song with refrain‑‑MS) with Improvised words.

Until recently the Tuvins had no folk dances outside of the panto­mimic imitation of the “eagle’s flight” at the entrance of wrestlers.

Khoi alzir songs are a special section of the Tuvin folksong tradi­tion. These are melodic recitations accompanying the pastoral ceremony of transferring baby sheep, goats, cows and horses to another mother when their original mother does not have milk, refuses to nurse its child or has died. They led the young to its new mother, placed them next to each other and turned to both with the words of traditional animal‑goading noises (e.g. “tiro. tiro, tirogat” for sheep, “chu, chu, chu” for goats and “oog,,oog, oog” for cows), sung to melodies In recitatory style. The tunes of these melodic recitations are close to each other and are strikingly close to Tuvin lullabies (urug opeileer) with melodies of analogous recitatory style. For rocking children such melodies are sung to a few words. “opei, opei (“rock‑a‑bye”), “udui ber, olgum” (“sleep, my son”). or “sariim” (“yellow one, ” an endearing term). The Tuvins say that from a far one cannot distinguish whether one is rocking a baby or accustoming a calf, kid or lamb to a new mother…

It is characteristic that in the past Tuvin shamans turned to the same type of melodic recitation. The tunes of their séances (according to the faithful account of Kok‑ool) wore similar both to the tunes of lullabies and to the melodic recitation accompanying the domestication of animals… (EX . 1)

The Tuvins divide folksong into two groups of genres: irlar (“songs”) and kozhamik (songs with refrains). Irlar is the plural of ir, “song”, from the verb irlaar, “to sing. ” The word kozhamik stems from the verb kozhar (“to unite,” connect”, “pair off “). According to the Tuvin poet S. Piurbiu, this term is explained by the pairing of strophes of poetic text, character­istic of the kozhamik, especially for one if its typical forms a dialogue of two singers. To the irlar genre belong slow melodic lyric songs with poetic texts mainly of a contemplative nature (about the homeland, pastoralism or hunting. love and separation, complaint about one’s hard lot in the old days), and also historical songs (e.g. about the uprising of the “60 heroes”) and a large part of contemporary folk songs. To the kozhamik genre belong fast melodic lyric songs often with refrains (kozhumak) with largely improvised texts. The themes of love and youth are most characteristic for the song texts of the kozhamik genre, since songs of this type are mainly sung by young people during holiday promenades…..

Songs of both genres are traditionally sung solo, but on holidays and during young people’s promenades they may be sung by a chorus in unison. Heterophonic departures from unison are looked down upon by the Tuvins as being the result of untalented performance. They use unison singing as a means of learning new songs.

The guttural or throat song (Khomei) is a special vocal genre of Tuvin folk music. This is the simultaneous performance by one singer of a held pitch in the lower register and a melody (composed of overtones) in the higher register. Throat singing is known not only to the Tuvins, but also to several neighbouring peoples (Mongols, Oirats, Khakass, Gorno ­Altais and Bashkirs). However, among the Tuvins it has been preserved in the most developed and widespread form, in that there is not one but four stylistic varieties of throat‑singing. It appears that Tuva is the, centre of the Turco‑Mongol culture of throat singing…

The solo ostinato two‑voice throat (or guttural) singing of the Turkic peoples has aroused the amazement of all observers. It has seemed incomprehensible and inexplicable to everyone. “It is unnatural for a human being to carry two voices simultaneously”, wrote L. Lebedinskii apropos of the Bashkir uzliau throat singing. “The timbres themselves of uzliau are unnatural, as is the ostinato lower organ point, as well as the sounds of the upper register; the necessity of such lengthy breath ‑holding is unnatural too”. (Lebedinskii 1948.50‑51). The unusual timbre of throat singing and the enigmatic character of its technique has been characterized by observers as “forest wildness” (Rybakov 1897.271), or they have seen in it traces of shamanism. (Lebedinskii 1948:51).

The Tuvins make no connection between throat singing and shamanism. They view it in purely every‑day aesthetic terms and approximate it to the purely everyday act of playing on the         khomus (Jew’s harp)                                                                        to which the      art of throat singing is strikingly close both in musical style and in thecharacter of the sound. In fact the melodic style of one genre of Tuvan throat singing (kargiraa) is reminiscent of pieces played on the iash khomus(wooden Jew’s‑harp‑‑MS). The Tuvins’ converging of the art of throat singing and the art of Jew’s‑harp play is certainly not coincidental. Both these types of Tuvin music arts based on a common technique of producing melodic sounds; they differ only in the technique of producing the ostinato basis of the melody (organ‑point). ..

In throat singing the performer sings only a single low fundamental rich in upper partials; the partials, forming a melody, are selected from this unceasing sound through changes in the width of the mouth cavity just as in playing on the Jew’s‑harp. However, the melodic possibilities of throat singing are incomparably richer than those of the Jew’s‑harp. On the khomus one can produce a fundamental of only one unchanging pitch and timbre, and in throat singing the singer can produce (with the vocal chords) several alternating fundamentals of varying pitch and can select partials (forming the melody) from each.

… The types of throat singing of various peoples differ not only in melodic style, but also in the height and timbre of the fundamentals forming their melodic possibilities. In Tuva, four genres of throat singing and four associated melodic styles are found. Each has its own name:kargiraa, borbannadir, sigit and ezengileer.

The Kargiraa.Style: The fundamental, similar in timbre to the lower register of the French horn, is produced by the singer with half‑opened mouth. Among various performers its height varies in the range of the four lowest pitches of the great octave. During performance it may be kept unchanged, but sometimes it is moved down a minor third for a short period.

The melody, placed in the upper pitches of the first and lower pitches of the second octave, is made from the eighth, ninth, tenth and twelfth partials of the fundamental, though some performers add the sixth partial as well. The change to a fundamental down a minor third is used by the performer only when the eighth partial sounds, which then also shifts down the same minor third. This is a traditional means of widening the scale of the tune. The partials forming the melody sound cleanly are heard clearly and distinctly and are reminiscent of reed‑pipe tones in bright and whistling timbre. Each partial sounds to a specific vowel sound and the melodic change from one partial to another is accompanied by a change of vowel‑sounds. (Ex. 2a).

The repertoire of kargiraa throat‑singing consists most commonly of, special ornamented broad‑breathed melodies not performed as songs, though distinctive musical pieces might also be performed in kargiraa. These pieces begin with a psalmodic recitation of the text (sometimes any text and sometimes special kargiraa opening texts) on two pitches or, more accurately, on one fundamental tone in two positions: raised and lowered by a minor third. In such recitations the eighth, or more rarely the ninth, partial sounds simultaneously with the fundamental (in both its positions). Each half‑strophe of the song of these opening recitations is interrupted by a wordless melody usual for kargiraa throat singing. This melody is analogous to the traditional melodic line at the end of each text‑line or half‑strophe of Tuvin folksong, featuring a melodic figure for each syllable.

The Borbannadir style: The fundamental in the borbannadir style is softer and quieter, similar to the timbre of the bass clarinet’s lower register. It is produced by the same position of the vocal chords as the kargiraa style but with a different position of the lips, almost totally closed (as in pronouncing the voiced fricative consonant v) Due to this, the breath is released significantly more economically in borbannadir style than in kargiraa. In the former the performer can encompass a greater number of melodic tones (partials) than in the latter. Thu fundamental in borbannadir style remains unchanging in pitch as opposed to the kargiraa style, where it moves down a minor third occasionally.

The height of the fundamental varies among individual performers within the range of the three middle pitches of the great octave. The melody, placed in the range of the whole second octave and the lower third octave, is made of the sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, twelfth and sometimes thirteenth partials. It sounds more resonant and soft than in the kargiraa style, reminiscent of the harmonics of the viola and cello. (Ex. 2b)

In contrast to the kargiraa style, which remains unbroken for the space of an entire breath, singing in the borbannadir style is sometimes interrupted and sometimes broken. In unbroken singing the fundamental and its melodic partials are heard only as a single tone‑colour of the consonant v. In the broken singing of this style the intoning of v is interrupted by the full closing of the lips followed by opening either on x the plosive voiced consonant b or on the nasal consonant m. The timbre of the sound on m has two nuances differing in the height of the tongue: The lowered tongue sounds a usual m while the raised tongue (as for pronouncing…n) along with closed lips (as for . ..m) sounds like … mn. ..

The Tuvins consider the borbannadir style as technically similar to the kargiraa style. All performers who master the … kargiraa style master… borbannadir style, but many cannot master the remaining two styles of throat singing, which depend on a different technique of soundproduction. The technical similarity between kargiraa and borbannadir styles allows sudden changing from one to the other in the same vocalpiece, as often happens among skilled performers. Some pieces begin on barbannadir, change to kargirua in the middle and return to borbannadir at the end. Other pieces begin with a melodic recitation of text in the

kargiraa style and then move to the borbannadir style instead of kargiraa for the melodic section (after each half‑strophe).

The Tuvins sing only special songs belonging exclusively to borbannadir in that style. Characteristic of the melody is descending motion, beginning with the high pitches (predominantly from the twelfth partial) and descending through leaps usually to the seventh, or more rarely the eighth partial, which is lengthily ornamented in a varied complex rhythm, mostly by trills. Pieces of this sort, but without the ornamenting on the seventh and eighth partials, are also typical for instrumental tunes on the iash hkomus. In some locales the borbannadir style is also known under a different name, khomei (a term also used by the Mongols for a related style‑‑MS). In the locales where borbannadir is called khomei they use the term borbannadir for melodic recitation of song texts begin­ning with several pieces in kargiraa style.

The sigit style: The fundamental is tenser and higher than in the kargiraa and borbannadir styles. Its height varies according to performer around the middle pitches of the small octave, and is similar in timbre to a muted French horn or at times to a cello playing ponticello. It is produced by a special strained position of the vocal chords with half‑open mouth and sounds markedly weaker than the kargiraa style. During the course of a single piece it does not remain fixed but changes, but according to a different principle than in kargiraa. The character of its motion is the distinguishing feature setting off sigit from the other styles of Tuvin throat singing.. The fundamental is used not only as an ostinato tone with melodic partials but as a mobile, lower melodic voice without melodic partials.

Two types of throat singing alternate in sigit: a monophonic one only in the low register and a two‑voiced type with a simultaneous lower and upper line. At the beginning a special melody (not from a song) of recitatory nature is sung with the fundamental to the words of any song. Next (either after the ending of each line or, in songs with a refrain (dembildei after each verse) the melody remains on a held pitch (the fundamental) on the basis of which the performer selects partials for a second, ornamented melody in higher register.

In. pieces with a two‑voice melody each odd line of verse (first or third) is ended with a fundamental of one pitch while the even lines (second or fourth) end with a fundamental of a different height, a tone below the first. In the continuation of two‑voiced episodes after an even line the fundamental sporadically and briefly lowers a minor third, as in kargiraa style, and each two voiced episode ends with a traditional glissando fall of an octave, along with its partial.. . (Ex. 2c)

Ornamented melodies of partials are produced in two‑voiced melodies after each line, from both alternating fundamentals. In two voiced melodies, following the odd‑numbered lines of song text such ornamented melodies are built on the eighth, ninth and tenth overtones … and on the eighth, ninth, tenth and twelfth overtones after even numbered lines……

The partials on which ornamented melodies are built in sigit sound in a very high register (upper part of the third and beginning of the fourth octaves) in a sharp, whistling timbre reminiscent of the piccolo in the same register. The vocalisation of vowels in such a high register can hardly be distinguished and the corresponding relationship of vowels and their partials cannot be established. The upper voice in sigit…. Does not constitute a melody so much as an ornamented trilling and punctuating rhythm principally on two pitches (the ninth and tenth partials of the two fundamentals). This special melodic hallmark sets sigit off from all the other styles of Tuvin throat singing, in which the upper voice constitutes a developed melody.

The Ezengileer Style: This style is identical in sound production and timbre to sigit, and is special only in melodic terms. The fundamentalin ezengileer is placed in the same register … as in sigit, but in contrast to sigit it does not move during the course of the entire piece. The opening melodic recitation on the fundamental, typical of sigit, lacks in ezengileer.

The melody of the partials has melodic significance, as in kargiraa and borbannadir, and is not merely ornamental as in sigit. The melody inezengileer is quite varied as it is improvised by performers from various partials. Thus, in one piece of this style recorded on a disc in 1934 fromthe performer Soruktu, in based on the sixth, eighth, ninth, tenth and twelfth partials (Ex. 2d), whereas a piece in the same style recorded in 1932 … from D, Trubacheev is built on the eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth partials (Ex. 2e)

In all the details just described (Including sound production and timbre) ezengileer is strikingly close to sample of Bashkir throat singing, uzliau. The latter differs from. . ezengileer only in the national character of the melody. In addition, the use of agogic accent in pieces of Tuvin ezengileer style sets it off from Bashkir uzliau.

In the melody of the partials, as In the sounding of the fundamental of ezengileer one clearly hears the uninterrupted dynamic pulsations (alternation of strong and weak tones) in the rhythm of a… gallop… This characteristic dictates a tradition of performing pieces in this style on horseback. The term ezengileer in literal translation means “stirupped”, from the word ezengi, “stirrup”…. The persistent upward leaps of a third and a fourth (to the twelfth partial) with holds on the upper pitch….sound like fanfares or calls.

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Overtone Singing and Trumpet, Alex Glenfield performs Part 17 of “The One and None Epic”, USA

Video

Published on Sep 30, 2012
In this excerpt from the larger epic, I layer overtone singing with the trumpet. Can anything mourn like a trumpet? Rip a heart out, put it right back in again, hooked up better than before; and maybe that’s the blues.