SVEN GRAWUNDER : On the Physiology of Voice Production in South-Siberian Throat Singing, GERMANY

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http://email.eva.mpg.de/~grawunde/files/ICPhS2003.SG.pdfhttp://email.eva.mpg.de/~grawunde/files/ICPhS2003.SG.pdfContents
ý.Ô Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ô
ý.ò Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ç
ý.ç Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¥
ý.¥ Symbols, Abbreviations and Transliteration . . . . . . . . . . . . . â
Ô INTRODUCTION À
Ô.Ô Subject Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . À
Ô.ò roat Singing ( S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ôý
Ô.ç Overtone Singing (OtS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ô 
Ô.¥ eoretical Context Of Voice Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ôâ
Ô.¥.Ô Perspectives, Layers and Denitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ôâ
Ô.¥.ò Principles of Phonation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ÔÀ
Ô.¥.ç Voice Production – Source and Vocal Tract . . . . . . . . . òò
Ô.¥.¥ Voice Quality (VQ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . òç
Ô.  Research Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . òâ
ò SUBJECT ò—
ò.Ô Physiological & Acoustical Correlates of S Phonatory Qualities ò—
ò.Ô.Ô Styles in South-Siberian roat Singing – Ethnomusicological
vs. Phonetic Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ò—
ò.Ô.ò Physiological Phonetics of roat Singing . . . . . . . . . çÞ
ò.Ô.ç Voice Sources in roat Singing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ç—
ò.Ô.¥ Vocal Tract in roat Singing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ç—
ò.ò Specic Anatomy of Certain Laryngeal Structures . . . . . . . . . ¥ý
© Frank und Timme Verlag für wissenschaftliche Literatur iii
ò.ò.Ô Basic Functional Anatomy of the Larynx . . . . . . . . . . ¥ý
ò.ò.ò Ventricular Fold and Ventricular Voice . . . . . . . . . . . ¥Ô
ò.ò.ç Aryepiglottic Fold (plica aryepiglottica) . . . . . . . . . . . ¥ 
ò.ò.¥ Aryepiglottic Sphincter (AES) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¥â
ò.ç Physical Examination of the Lower Vocal Tract in roat Singing ¥—
ò.ç.Ô Preliminary Laryngoscopic Examination of roat Singing ¥—
ò.ç.ò Additional Recordings of Fibre Endoscopic Examination
of roat Singing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  â
ò.¥ Vocal Tract Shape Investigations – Articulation of “Reinforced
Harmonics” in roat Singing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . âý
ò.¥.Ô Observable Techniques or Methods of “Overtone Articulation”
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . âý
ò.¥.ò PhonationModes andArticulation Types in roat Singing âò
ò.¥.ç Physical Observations on Singers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Þò
ò.¥.¥ Investigations using X-ray Videožuoroscopy . . . . . . . Þò
ò.¥.  Investigations using Ultrasound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Þ 
ò.¥.â MRI Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Þ 
ò.  Discussion of VPTs and Laryngeal Settings in roat Singing . . . Þâ
ò. .Ô Posterior-AnteriorCompression, SupraglottalConstriction Þâ
ò. .ò Ventricular Fold Mechanism (VTF) – Medial Compression
of Supraglottal Constriction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . —ý
ò. .ç Double Source Phonation or Diplophonic Phonation . . . —Ô
ò. .¥ Discussion of Vocal Tract Articulation . . . . . . . . . . . — 
ò.â HYPOTHESES & Expectations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . —Þ
ç METHOD – Physioacoustical Analysis of Voice Production in S Àý
ç.Ô Preliminary Considerations –Why do we need eld data of S? Àý
ç.ò SpecicNon-InvasiveMethodology forVoice Investigation in Field
Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ÀÔ
ç.ò.Ô FieldWork within Voice Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ÀÔ
ç.ò.ò Field Conditions in Southern Siberia . . . . . . . . . . . . Àò
ç.ò.ç Invasivity, Manageability, and Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . Àç
iv © Frank und Timme Verlag für wissenschaftliche Literatur
ç.ò.¥ ç-Channel-Recording ofVoice, EGG, and Subglottal Pressure
(Inverse Filtering) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˴
ç.ò.  Subject Recruitment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ÀÞ
ç.ò.â Subject Tasks and Raw Data Corpus Description . . . . . À—
ç.ç Voice (Source) Analysis Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ÀÀ
ç.ç.Ô Preparation and Data Pre-Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ÀÀ
ç.ç.ò Physio-Acoustic Analysis Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ÔýÔ
¥ RESULTS Ôòò
¥.Ô Analysis and Findings in the Voice Signal (Vx) . . . . . . . . . . . Ôòò
¥.Ô.Ô Vx-signal Corpus Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ôòò
¥.Ô.ò VxWaveform Shapes and Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ôò 
¥.Ô.ç VxWaveform Perturbations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ôçý
¥.Ô.¥ Formants, Bandwidths and Reinforced Harmonics . . . . Ô¥ç
¥.Ô.  Glottal Characteristics in the spectra
(HÔ-Hò, HÔ-AÔ, HÔ-Aç etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ô ý
¥.Ô.â Average Spectral Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ô ç
¥.Ô.Þ Findings in Inverse Filtering Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ô À
¥.ò Analysis and Findings for Lx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ôâç
¥.ò.Ô Sub-Corpus Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ôâç
¥.ò.ò Findings in EGG and DEGGWave Shapes (incl. Gx) . . . Ôâç
¥.ò.ç Periods Obtained by Lx Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . ÔÞÔ
¥.ò.¥ Jitter of the Lx Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ÔÞç
¥.ò.  Shimmer of the Lx Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ÔÞ¥
¥.ò.â EGG Quotients – Analysis and Findings . . . . . . . . . . ÔÞÀ
¥.ç Analysis and Findings for the Subglottal PressureWave Signal (Sx) ԗç
¥.ç.Ô Sub-Corpus Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ԗç
¥.ç.ò Coordination of Vx, Lx and Sx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ԗç
¥.ç.ç Sx vs. VxWaveform Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ԗâ
¥.ç.¥ Spectral Analysis of Sx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ԗâ
¥.¥ Additional Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ÔÀÔ
¥.¥.Ô Air Flow in Dišerent VPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ÔÀÔ
¥.¥.ò Aryepiglottic Sphincter Constriction (MV 􀀀 AESV) in Lx ÔÀò
© Frank und Timme Verlag für wissenschaftliche Literatur v
¥.¥.ç Variations in kargyraa (VTF-V, AEF-VF, etc.) . . . . . . . ÔÀ¥
¥.  DISCUSSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ÔÀÀ
¥. .Ô Interrelations and Correlations Between Measures . . . . ÔÀÀ
¥. .ò Possible Voice Production Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . òýý
¥. .ç Similarities to Other Pathological and Non-pathological
Voice Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . òýÔ
  SUMMARY òý¥
 .Ô Macrostructure and Microstructure of S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . òý¥
 .ò Are roat Singers High-Risk Vocal Performers? . . . . . . . . . . òýÞ
 .ç Perspectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . òý—
A TABLES, DIAGRAMs & SCRIPTS òÔý
A.Ô Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . òÔý
A.Ô.Ô Descriptive Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . òÔý
A.Ô.ò Normal Distribution Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . òÔ¥
A.Ô.ç Nonparametric Rank Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . òòÔ
A.Ô.¥ Tables of Correlation Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . òòÀ
A.ò Diagrams and Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . òçâ
A.ò.Ô Descriptive Plots and Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . òçâ
A.ò.ò Spectra and Spectrograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ò¥Ô
A.ò.ç Waveform andWaterfall Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ò ý
A.ç Scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . òâò
A.ç.Ô Script Ô: Formants, Bandwidths, Harmonics . . . . . . . . òâò
A.ç.ò Script ò: Obtaining Jitter, Shimmer, HNR, NHR, etc. . . . òâÞ
A.ç.ç Script ç: Vx, Lx, Inverse Filtering of Vx, EGG-Quotients . òÞý
A.ç.¥ Script ¥: CascadingWaveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . òÞÀ
B REFERENCES ò—Ô
B.Ô Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ò—Ô
B.ò Analysed Recordings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ò—ç
B.ò.Ô Audio-CDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ò—ç
B.ò.ò Broadcasts [B] & Documentaries[F] . . . . . . . . . . . . . ò—â
vi © Frank und Timme Verlag für wissenschaftliche Literatur
B.ò.ç Field Recordings [FR] and Archive Material [AR] . . . . . ò—Þ
B.ç Subjects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ò—Þ
B.¥ Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ò—À
© Frank und Timme Verlag für wissenschaftliche Literatur vii

 Titel: “Sven Grawunder: On the Physiology of Voice Production in South-Siberian Throat Singing” |

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Titel:
Sven Grawunder: On the Physiology of Voice Production in South-Siberian Throat Singing 
Untertitel:
Analysis of Acoustic and Electrophysiological Evidences 
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334 Seiten 
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Contents

This book presents the first field-work based phonetic study focussing such extraordinary phonatory outcomes as occur in the context of South-Siberian throat singing. In throat singing specific voice production types serve as source, which are subject to various ways of formant shaping, merging, adjustment, and reinforcement, all of which function to enhance individual harmonics. Two main types are proposed for voice production in South-Siberian throat singing: a voice production by means of the vocal folds featuring a constriction of the aryepiglottic sphincter, and a voice production with involvement of the ventricular folds. Furthermore a simple schematic model for the articulation types in throat singing is suggested. One of the basic questions throughout this study is whether the phenomenon of throat singing shows fairly clear regional variants in different parts of southern or whether the variation is chiefly a matter of individual styles. 

The Author

Sven Grawunder studied Speech Science, German Linguistics and Phonetics at the Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, Germany. He has conducted ethnomusicological, phonetic and linguistic field work in language documentation projects in Siberia, India and Africa. Currently he works as a postdoc researcher at the linguistics department of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany.

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