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TRAN QUANG HAI : A Wide Range of Possibilities of the Human Voice

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A Wide Range of Possibilities of the Human Voice

 

Tran Quang Hai (France/ Vietnam)

 

To establish a typology of the voice is not something easy to be done .  Based on the phonation and its production, is proposed a first attempt of provisory voice classification :

  1. 1.    Calls, cries and clamours

The voice is used with intensity in order to project towards a big audience . The cries remain an individual expression of pain (funerals), joy (ululations of the Arabo-Berber world), and astonishment (“ole” of flamenco)

Sound example : KECAK chorus in Bali, Indonesia

Kecak chorus appeared at the beginning of 20th century. This genre drew from older models, such as the trance dances as practised in temples . A chorus men, some one hundred singers, seated in concentric circles facing towards the centre, where a scene from the Ramayana is played. The chorus itself performs a polyphony of diverse cries and onomatopoeias, wherein the syllables KE and CAK are stylised monkey calls. The result is a varied rhythmic counterpoint, mainly using techniques of hocket, ostinato and off beat . Synchronisation between the different parts is rigorously directed by one of the members in the chorus. There is no place for improvisation .

  1. 2.    Voice and breath

The sound of the breath itself may be exploited for aesthetic ends, as when seeking a special timbre (as in the whispered voice of the Burundi zither player . Inuit throat games combine both rhythmical component of the breath and musical line of the voice .

Sound example : Whispered song with Inanga trough zither , Burundi

The pronunciation of the words by a man’s voice with the breath very obvious is perfectly synchronised with the plucking of the zither

Sound example : Throat game by Inuits, Canada

Three short throat game pieces KATAJJAQ a) by Elijah Pudloo Mageeta and Napache Samaejuk Pootoogook, b) by Temgeak Pitaulassie with Alla Braun, c) by Soria Eyituk with Lusi Kuni

The KATAJJAQ is a singular vocal technique characterized by the alternation of audible inhalation and exhalation, by a nasal and guttural vocal emission, and of bursts of sounds without fixed pitch. It is built upon repetitive motifs . Women’s vocal jousting. The two singers get face to face, almost mouth to mouth. The idea is to fatigue the adversary, and rhythmicalle destabilize her . A piece ends when one of the women runs out of breath and laughs .

  1. 3.    Spoken, declaimed, sung

Cantillation of the Koran, Buddhist psalmody, recitation of the Rig Veda in India, ritual speech in New Caledonia, and shaman’s song in Terra del Fuego (Argentina) are different aspects of this category .

Sound example : Buddhist psalmody by Tibetan Monks, Tibet

This is an extract of an invocation to the goddess Aphyi, protector of the monastery .

The passage shows the style of chanting dbyangs (literally “vowels”) and is characterized by a solemnisation of the enunciated text, obtained by the interpolation of syllables without meaning between the words with the accompaniment of a big frame drum .

  1. 4.    Compass and register

The term “register” is used in widely different ways. Acousticians and physiologists recognize 4 registers or mecanisms: mecanism 0: strobass or fry voice, mecanism 1: chest voice, mecanism 2: head voice, mecanism 3: whistle or flute voice .

The alternation of the 2 principal registers can sometimes constitute the very essence of the musical material, as is the case of the yodel, defined as such by the rapid passing from one mechanism to the other .

Sound example : Totemic emblem song, East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea , tribe: Abelam

This men’s song is sung with a “strobass “ voice in the deep bass . This song has no words .

Sound example: Song for the carnaval, Bolivia, Indians Llamero

By 2 women, this vocal duo with an ensemble of 4 vertival flutes rnkillo played in parallel octave by men . The women sing in the highest register, it is said that their voices “become visible” .

Sound example: Yodel during the alpine pasturage, Switzerland

A three part polyphonic song without words consists of yodel syllables selected for the register, mostly with the vowels (a) and (o) in chest voice and (u) in falsetto, but also with (i) in both registers .

  1. 5.    Colours and timbres

If the “flamenco voice” is often thought of as “guttural”, what does this word mean, and what kind of physiological reality is involved ? Is not the Xhosa voice while quite different from the Andalusian, not also “guttural” ? As for “nasal voice”, how can we determine the difference between the voice used in American country music and the one of Japanese shomyo chanting ?

Sound example : Flamenco song seguiriya , Spain

This example of the flamenco voice, whose pungency and dark character are summed up the adjective negra “black” . A negra voice contains a number of intentional impurities

Sound example : Shomyo buddhist chanting , Japan

The psalmodic chant Hyôbyaku is a prayer offered to Dainichi recited by an old monk with a nasal voice

6. Disguised voices

There are several techniques of disguise that a singer can employ . In the Peking opera, a male actor sings in falsetto to imersonate a female . The masked voice in Africa evokes the supernatural spirit. The didjeridu of the Australian aborigines,the kazoo of European children, the bamboo tubes of the Iatmul of the Sepik area, Papua New Guinea, or clay pots in Rajasthan, India distort the voice during performances .

Sound example: Peking opera Jingxi/ Pingju, China

The principal feminine role is traditionnally performed by a man

Sound example : Song with mirliton , Honduras

Alternance of sung words with cries, of a relatively weak intensity . The voice is masked by means of a mirliton .A small tube is closed at its lower end while to the other end is fixed a vibrating membrane (skin from a bat’s wing, intestine or paper).

  1. 7.    Ornementation

Vibrato can be considered as ornementation . In Western lyrical singing, it is a minimal form of ornamentation . The Mongolians alternate vibrato with trills (upon 2 degrees)

Sound example : Epic song , Kurdistan, Iran

Ne discovers here the same very confined melodic structure, and the ornamentation technique tahrir, though less applied .

 

         8 .Singing in the instrument

By lip vibration, the Australian aborigines  use the didjeridu as a horn, and with the technique of circular breathing permitting a continuous sonorous spectrum, rich in harmonics. At the same time, the musician emits sounds of different animals

Sound example :solo of didjeridu, Australie

9 .Imitation of instruments

The flute (in Mongolia) is not , however the only instrument that the voice can take for model – the fiddle (the Tibesti region of Chad) , the whistle (Central Africa) or the drum (North and South India)

Sound example : imitation of flute limbe , Mongolia

The singer uses an acrobactic vocal technique called “playing the flute through the nose”

10. Employ of harmonics

A periodic sound is made of a fundamental and a series of upper harmonics which are selected to create an independent melody .

Experimental Research on Overtone / Undertone Singing

 

My experimental research on overtone/undertone singing has enabled me to establish  new possibilities of sound productions

  1. To select  one harmonic as a drone and to sing a melody with fundamentals

The fundamentals can be varied from 110 Hz  to 220 Hz (from A2 to A3) in the diatonic scale. During that time is kept the same pitch of the selected overtone at 1320 Hz. In order to obtain this result, the tip of the tongue strongly touches the meeting point of the hard palate and the soft palate or velum under the roof of the palate and should not make any movement . In that case, the two buccal cavities obtained by the position of the tongue inside of the mouth have the same volume and get the same overtone pitch in spite of the changing pitch of the fundamentals .

  1. To create a parallel between fundamentals and overtones

The overtones are always 3 octaves higher than the fundamentals while singing the ascending and descending  diatonic scale with the fundamentals . If the fundamental is at 110 Hz , the overtone will be heard at 880 Hz. If the fundamental is moved up to 220 Hz , the overtone will be at 1760 Hz . For this experiment,, not only the tip of the tongue is hardly pressed  against the roof of the palate and moves from the velum to the hard palate when the fundamentals moves from A2 (110 Hz) to A3 (220 Hz) in order to create the same pitched distance of 3 octaves in parallel .

  1. To create the opposite direction between overtones and fundamentals

When the fundamental is sung at A2 (110 Hz) the overtone is at H16 (4 octaves above the fundamental). While the fundamental goes up to A3 (220 Hz) , the overtone goes down to H4 (2 octaves above the fundamental). Consequently, this shows the opposite movement of fundamentals and overtones . In order to get this spectrum, the position of the tip of the tongue touches near the teeth under the roof of the palate (H16 will be heard) and moves  back slowly to the velum (H4) while the fundamentals start with low pitch (A2) and ends with high pitch (A3) of the A tonality

 

  1. To write words with overtones (such words like MINIMUM,  WIN )

A limited number of words can be written with overtones . With the same pitch of the fundamental , the written words can be done by varying overtones  at three levels (under 1,000 Hz, 2,000 Hz, and 3,000 Hz)

  1. To create UNDERTONES (F-2, F-3, F-4 while singing a melody)

Some traditional throat voices like Tuvan Kargyraa, Xhosa  Umngqokolo from South Africa, the Tenore voice of the Sardinian Quintina  (the fusion of 4 main voices creates the virtual fifth overtone voice) use the undertone going down one octave lower than the real fundamental . Leonardo Fuks from Brazil arrived to go down to F-5 (2 octaves and a major third below the fundamental) but he could not sing a tune with that way . I have succeeded in  dividing the fundamental pitch into 2, 3, and 4 . With  the use of arytenoids inside of my throat , I could sing one octave lower (F-2), one octave and a fifth lower (F-3) and two octaves lower (F-4) than the real fundamental pitch (between 110 Hz and 150 Hz) . It is not possible to create the undertones above 220 Hz or below 60 Hz

  1. To combine OVERTONES and UNDERTONES while singing a melody

In Tuvan kargyraa, and Xhosa umngqokolo from South Africa, the combination of overtones (melody) and undertones (real fundamental split into two – F-2) can be produced simultaneously . With my experiment, I could sing an overtone melody with the fundamental divided into 3 (F-3) simultaneously . The perception is naturally not at all identical.

  1. To create overtones corresponding to 7 chakras in Yoga

In Yoga, there exist 7 chakras corresponding to 7 vowels, 7 sounds or pitches, 7 overtones and 7 points of the human body. I carried out experimen-tal research in the presence of overtones in Yoga. The result of my three-year study was presented at the International Congress of Yoga in France in 2002 .
According to my research, the fundamental of voice should be at 150Hz .

1 Mulâdhâra        coccyx   H n° 4     U           600Hz
2 Svâdhishthâna  genitals  H n° 5     O           750Hz
3 Manipûra          navel     H n° 6     Ö           900Hz
4 Anâhata            heart      H n° 8     A         1200Hz
5 Vishuddha        throat     H n° 9     E          1350Hz
6 Ajnâ between eyebrows H n°10    AE       1500Hz
7 Sahasrâra   top of head  H n°12     I          1800Hz

Conclusion

First, I would like to present you a quick overview of different possibilities that the voice can be found in traditional musics in the world and second, I am happy to show you some results of my recent discoveries on overtone / undertone study . Thank you for your attention ..

Selective Bibliography for Overtone Singing Study

 

Bloothooft G. Bringmann E., van Capellen M.,  van Luipen J.B., Thoamssen K.P.  1992: “Acoustic and Perception of Overtone Singing”, in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, JASA, vol.92, n°4: 1827-1836.

Dargie, D. 1993: “Thembu Xhosa umngqokolo overtone singing : the use of the human voice as a type of “musical bow”, paper presented at the ICTM Conference in Berlin. (self publication)

Grawunder, S. 2003 : “Der südsibirische Kehlgesang als Gegenstand  phonetishcer Untersuchungen“ , in Gegenstandsauffassung und aktuelle phonetische Forschungen der halleschen Sprechwissenschaft :53-91, Eva-Maria Krech/Eberhard Stock (Ed), Peter Lang, Halle, Germany .

Grawunder, S. 2003: „Unusual phonetic and acoustic features in certain Tuvan throat singing styles“, Scientific Center of Research „Xoomei“, Kyzyl, Tuva

Leipp, E. 1971 : “Le probleme acoustique du chant diphonique”, Bulletin du Groupe d’Acoustique Musicale , no 58 : 1-10, Universite de Paris VI

Leothaud, G. 1989 : « Considerations acoustiques et musicales sur le chant diphonique », Le Chant diphonique, dossier n°1 : 17-43, Institut de la Voix, Limoges, France

Sundberg, Johan 1987 : The Science of the Singing Voice , Northern Illinois University Press, USA

Tisato G., Cosi, P. 2003: “On the Magic of Overtone Singing”, in Voce, Canto Parlato : 83-100, Unipress (publisher), Padova, Italy

Tongeren , van M. 2002 : Overtone Singing / Physics and Metaphysics of Harmonics in East and West , 271 pages, Fusica publisher, 1 CD , Amsterdam, the Netherlands

Tran Quang Hai , Guillou D. 1980 : « Original Research and Acoustical Analysis in connection with the Xöömij style of Biphonic Singing “, in Musical Voices of Asia : 163-173, The Japan Foundation (ed), Heibonsha Ltd, Tokyo, Japan

Tran Quang Hai , Zemp H., 1991: “Recherches experimentales sur le chant diphonique”, Cahiers de musiques traditionnelles, 4 (Voix) : 27-68, Ateliers d’Ethnomusicologie, Geneva , Switzerland .

Tran Quang Hai 2002 : « A la decouverte du chant diphonique », in Moyens d’investigation et Pedagogie de la voix chantee : 117-132, with a CD Rom, Guy Cornut (ed), Symetrie publishers, Lyon, France

 

Filmography

 

1990 Le chant des harmoniques  (The Song of Harmonics),  film 16mm and video cassette , 38 minutes, directed by H.Zemp, co-authors (Tran Quang Hai and Hugo Zemp), CNRS Audio Visuel (prod), France . Contact: Tran Quang Hai, email: or tranquanghai@hotmail.com

2003 Le chant diphonique, DVD , 27 minutes, directed by C.Beguinet, co-authors (Tran Quang Hai and Luc Souvet), Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique (CRDP), Saint Denis, Isle of the Reunion, contact: Luc Souvet email : luc.souvet@wanadoo.fr

Weborama

 

http://haidiphonie.wordpress.com

http://tranquanghaisworld.blogspot.fr

www.khoomei.com

www.oberton.org

www.google.com  (type each of these words : overtone singing , throat singing , biphonic singing, diphonic singing, canto difonico, oberton,  khoomei, sygyt, kargyraa, harmonic singing,)

TRAN QUANG HAI : Method of Learning Overtone Singing KHOOMEI

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Method of Learning Overtone Singing KHOOMEI

 

Tran Quang Hai (france)Image

 

A considerable amount of research has been for the last 40 years carried out throughout the world into this vocal phenomenon, particularly as it is practised in Mongolia and Tuva.

In Mongolia and Tuva, thee word KHOOMEI means pharynx, throat, and KHOOMEILAKH is the technique of producing vocal harmonics. This most unusual technique, which takes the human voices to its limits, entails the production of two sounds simultaneously: a drone or fundamental that is rich in harmonics and reminiscent of the jew’s harp (the reason why this technique is also known as “jew’s harp voice”). This technique is strenuous for the performer according to Mongolian singers. The performer must tauten his muscles and swell his cheeks. Different sounds are obtained by varying the air pressure across the vocal folds, the volume of the mouth cavity, and tongue placement. In this way, variable pitch harmonics are produced to form the melody. The fundamental is produced in the back of the throat, passing through the mouth, and exciting throught the slightly parted lips and to a lesser extent through the nose.

Research can be done in many ways: by means of obervation of native performers after on or more visits to the country concerned, or by means of practising instruments and vocal training aimed at a better understanding of the musical structure employed by the population being studied. My own research does not belong to either of these two categories since I have never been to Monglia and I have never learned the KHOOMEI style (Overtone singing) from a Mongolian teacher. What I am going to describe for you here is the result of my own experiments which will enable anyone to produce two simultaneous sounds similar to Mongolian and Tuvin overtone singing.

DEFINITION

The manner in which the Mongolian and Tuvin word is transcribed is by no means not uniform: HO-MI, HÖ-MI (Vargyas, 1968), KHOMEI, KHÖÖMII  (Bosson, 1964: 11), CHÖÖMEJ (Aksenov 1973: 12), CHÖÖMIJ (Vietze 1969: 15-16), XÖÖMIJ (Hamayon 1973; Tran Quang Hai 1980: 162).

French researchers have used other terms to describe this peculiar vocal technique such as CHANT DIPHONIQUE or BIPHONIQUE (Leipp 1971), Tran Quang Hai 1974, Gilles Leothaud 1989, VOIX GUIMBARDE, VOIX DEDOUBLEE (Helffer 1973, Hamayon 1973), and CHANT DIPHONIQUE SOLO (Marcel-Dubois 1979). Several terms exist in English such as SPLIT-TONE SINGING, THROAT SINGING, OVERTONE SINGING, and HARMONIC SINGING. In German, it is called ZWEISTIMMIGEN SOLOGESANG. In Italian, it is called CANTO DIFONICO ou CANTO DIPLOFONICO .

For convenience, I have employed the term “OVERTONE SINGING” to describe a style of singing performed by a single person producing simultaneously a continuous drone and another sound at a higher pitch issueing from a series of partials or harmonics resembling the sound of the flute.

HOW DID I COME TO THE OVERTONE SINGING

In 1970, at the Department of Ethnomusicology (Musee de l’Homme), Prof. Roberte Hamayon let me listen to her recordings made in Mongolia in 1967 and 1969. I was surprised by the extraordinary and unique nature of this vocal technique.

For several months, I carried out bibliographical research into articles concerned with this style of singing with the aim of obtaining information on the practice of overtone singing, but received little satisfaction.

Explanations of a merely theoretical and sometimes ambiguous nature did nothing so much as to create and increase the confusion with which my research was surrounded. In spite of my complete ignorance of the training methods for overtone singing practised by the Mongolians, the Tuvins and other Siberian peoples, I was not in the least discouraged by thé negative results at the beginning of my studies after even several months of effort.

I worked entirely alone groping my way through the dark for two whole years, listening frequently to the recordings made by Roberte Hamayon stored at the Sound Archives of the Department of Ethnomusicology of the Musee de l’Homme. My efforts were however to no avail. Despite my knowledge of Jew’s Harp technique, the initial work was both difficult and discouraging.

I also tried to whistle while producing a low sound as a drone. However, checking on a sonagraph showing that this was not similar to the Mongolian Xöömij technique. At the end of 1972, I got to the state that I was still a long way from my goal.

Then, one day in November 1973, in order to calm my nerves in the appalling traffic congestion of Paris, I happened to make my vocal folds vibrate in the pharynx with my mouth half open and while reciting the alphabet. When I arrived at the letter L , and the tip of my tongue was about to touch the top of the palate, I suddenly heard a pure harmonic tone, clear and powerful. I repeated the operation several times and each time, I obtained the same result; I then tried to modify the position of the tongue in relation to the roof of the mouth while maintaining the low fundamental. A series of partials resonated in disorder in my ears.

At the beginning, I got the harmonics of a perfect chord. Slowly, after a week of intensive training, by changing the fundamental tone upwards and downwards, I discovered by myself the mystery of the overtone singing style which appeared to be near to that practised by the Mongolians and the Tuvins.

ABOUT MY OVERTONE TRAINING METHOD

After two months of “research” and numberless experiments of all kinds, I succeeded in creating a short overtone melody. Here is my “recipe” to help anyone to get this first step of overtone singing.

1. Intensify the vocal production with the throat voice

2. Pronounce the 2 vowels I  and U linked together and repeat it several times in one breath.

3. Make a nasal sound and tip of the tongue in a down position

4. In this way, it is possible to obtain both the drone and the upper harmonic line in descending and ascending order.

This is the first technique what I call “technique of one mouth cavity”. this one is easy to do and anyone can produce the effect of 2 voices in one throat after one minute of practice.

The second “recipe” will help you to produce clear overtones in the Mongolian and Tuvin styles. I call it “technique of two mouth cavities”

1. Emit a throat sound of the vowel E`  as long as you can.

2. Pronounce the letter L . Maintain the position with the tip of the tougue touching the roof of the palate. In this position, the mouth is divided into 2 cavities, one at the back and one at the front.

3. Say “LAANG” for the first exercice, and say “LONG ” for the second excercice. When you succeed in making the harmonics come out of the mouth, you keep the tip of the tongue to the palate while you sing , and at the same time you modify the mouth cavity by saying from A to O and from O to A several times in one breath.

4. Make a nasal sound

5. In this way, you can produce clearly thé drone and a series of harmonics in the Mongolian style.

For the beginners, the harmonics of the perfect chord (C, E, G,C) are easy to obtain. However, a considerable amount of hard work is necessary especially to obtain a pentatonic anhemitonic scale. Each person has his favourite note or pitch which enables him to produce a wide range of partials. This favourite fundamental varies according to the tonal quality of the singer’s voice.

NEW EXPERIMENTS ABOUT OVERTONE SINGING

Other experiments which I have been carrying out indicate that it is possible to obtain two simultaneous sounds in three different ways:

1. In the first method, the tongue is either flat or slightly curved without actually at any stage touching the roof of the mouth, and only the mouth and the lips move. Through such varieties of the mouth cavity, this time divided into a single cavity, it is possible to hear the partials but faintly and the highest harmonics cannot reach beyond 1200Hz.

2. In the second method, the basic technique described above is used. However, instead of keeping the mouth half open, it is kept almost shut with the lips pulled back and very tight. To make the partials audible, the position of the lips si varied at the same time as that of the tongue. The partials are very clear and distinctive, butthe technique is rather exhausting. The highest harmonics arrive at the zone of 2600 Hz.

3. In the third method, thé tongue si down, and the teeth bite the tongue while singing the vowels U and I with the contraction of  muscles at the abdomen and the throat. The hightest harmonics can be heard at thed zone of 4200Hz

Other new experiments I have tried to show that I can maintain thé same selective harmonic level which is used as a drone while changing the pitch of fundamentals (e.g. C, F, G, C). I have succeeded in creating the fundamental line and the harmonic line in the opposite direction. In other words, I arrive to sing the fundamental line in ascending order, and at the same time, I create the harmonic line in descending order. This harmonic effect is quite unusual and exceptional.

In 1989, Dr. Hugo Zemp and I made a film called “THE SONG OF HARMONICS” showing X-ray and spectrographical pictures in real time ans synchronous sound about the overtone singing practised in different countries. This film produced by the CNRS – Audiovisual and thé French Society for Ethnomusicology, obtained 2 prizes (Grand Prize and Best Music Prize) at the International Festival of Visual Anthropological Film in Estonia in October 1990, a prize (Special Prize for Research) at the International Festival of Scientific Film in Palaiseau (France) in November 1990, and a Grand Prize of the 2nd International Festival of Scientific Film in Montreal (Canada) in 1991.

In Western contemporary music, groups of singers have also succeeded in emitting two voices at the same time, and vocal pieces have been created in the context of avant garde music and of electro-acoustical music. David Hykes with his Harmonic Choir, created in New York in 1975, use the overtones to link with the cosmic universe in his compositions. Demetrio Stratos (1945-1979) used the overtones to create the relationship between voice and subconscious. In my compositions for improvized music, I recommend the investigation of overtones to enrich the world of sound. Other overtone singers like Michael Vetter, Christian Bollmann, Michael Reimann from Germany, Roberto Laneri from Italy, Rollin Rachele from the Netherlands, Josephine Truman from Australia, Les Voix Diphoniques , Thomas Clements, Iegor Reznikoff, Tamia  from France have also used thé overtones in their works.

Overtone singing is also practised by a number of ethnic groups (Oirat, Khakass, Gorno-Altai, Bashkir, Tuvin, Kalmuk) of the republics of Russia bordering on Mongolia. In Rajasthan (India), in Taiwan among the Bunun ethnic group, in Tibet among the monks belonging to the Gyuto and Gyume monasteries, in South Africa among the Xhosa population, the practice of overtone singing style is known throughout recordings.

I hope that after this short introduction to the overtone world, you will have an idea concerning the existence of the overtones in different areas in the world, the possibility of obtaining the know how of singing overtones.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

Bibliographie

 

AKSENOV, A.N. 1973: “Tuvin Folk Music”, Journal of the Society for Asian    Music 4(2):7-18, New York.

HAMAYON, R. 1980: “Mongol Music”, New Grove’s Dictionary of Music         and Musicians 12: 482-485, Stanley Sadie (éd), MacMillan Publishers,Londres.

LANERI, R. 1983: “Vocal Techniques of Overtone Production”,NPCA   Quarterly Journal 12(2-3): 26-30.

LEIPP, E. 1971: “Considération acoustique sur le chant diphonique”, Bulletin du Groupe d’Acoustique Musicale 58: 1-10, Paris..

LEOTHAUD, G. 1989: “Considérations acoustiques et musicales sur le chant diphonique”, Le chant diphonique, dossier n° 1: 17-43, Institut de la Voix, Limoges.

TRAN QUANG HAI & GUILOU, D. 1980: “Original Research and Acoustical Analysis in Connection with the Xöömij Style of Biphonic Singing”, Musical Voices of Asia : 162-173, The Japan Foundation (éd), Heibonsha Ltd, Tokyo.

TRAN QUANG HAI & ZEMP,Hugo. 1991: “Recherches expérimentales sur le chant diphonique”, Cahiers de Musiques traditionnelles : VOIX      vol.4: 27-68, Ateliers d’ethnomusicologie /AIMP, Genève.

TRAN QUANG HAI, 1975: “Technique de la voix chantée mongole: xöömij”,    Bulletin du CEMO (14 & 15): 32-36, Paris.

TRAN QUANG HAI, 1983: “Note à propos du chant diphonique mongol”, Catalogue de l’exposition Mongolie-Mongolie, Musée de l’Homme (éd), Paris.

TRAN QUANG HAI, 1989: “Réalisation du chant diphonique”, dossier n°1 Le Chant diphonique : 15-16, Institut de la Voix, Limoges.

TRAN QUANG HAI, 1990: “Les Musiques vocales”, L’Esprit des Voix, C.Alès (éd), La Pensée Sauvage: 43-52, Grenoble.

TRAN QUANG HAI, 1991: “New Experimental About the Overtone Singing Style”, (Nouvelles Expérimentations sur le chant diphonique), Nouvelles Voies de la Voix, 1ère partie, Bulletin d’adiophonologie 7(5&6): 607-618, Besançon.

TRAN QUANG HAI, 1995: ” Le chant diphonique: description, historique, styles, aspect acoustique et spectral”, EM, ANnuario degli Archivi di Etnomusicologia dell’Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia, 2:123-150, Rome.

TRAN QUANG HAI, 1995: “Survey of overtone singing style”, EVTA   (European Voice Teachers Association, Dokumentation 1994             (actes du congrès): 49-62, Detmold.

 

                                       DISCOGRAPHY

TUVA

Tuva: Voices from the Center of Asia ,Smithsonian Folkways CD SF 40017, Washington, USA, 1990.

Tuva: Voices from the Land of the Eagles , Pan Records, PAN 2005 CD, Leiden Hollande, 1991.

Tuva- Echoes from the Spirit World  , Pan Records, PAN 2013CD, Leiden, Hollande, 1992.

Musiques Traditionnelles d’Asie centrale/ Chants harmoniques Touvas , Silex Y 225222, Paris, France, 1995.

Shu-de /  Kongurei/ Voices from Tuva , New Tone NT6745, (ed) Robi Droli, San Germano, Italie, 1996.

MONGOLIA

Mongolie: Musique et Chants de tradition populaire , GREM G 7511, Paris, France, 1986.

Mongolie : Musique vocale et instrumentale ,Maison des Cultures du Monde,W260009, collection INEDIT, Paris, France, 1989.

Mongolian Music, Hungaroton, HCD 18013-14, collection UNESCO, Budapest, Hongrie, 1990.

White Moon, traditional and popular music from Mongolia , Pan Records, PAN 2010CD, Leiden, Hollande, 1992.

Folk Music from Mongolia / Karakorum , Hamburgisches Museum für Völkerkunde, Hambourg, Allemagne, 1993.

Vocal & Instrumental of Mongolia , Topic, World Series TSCD909, Londres, Grande Bretagne, 1994.

Jargalant Altai/-Xöömii and other vocal and instrumental music from Mongolia , Pan Records PAN 2050CD, Ethnic Series, Leiden, Hollande, 1996

SIBERIA

Uzlyau :Guttural singing of the Peoples of the Sayan, Altai and Ural Mountains , Pan Records PAN 2019CD, Leiden, Hollande, 1993.

Chant épiques et diphoniques :Asie centrale, Sibérie, vol 1, Maison des Cultures du Monde, W 260067, Paris, France, 1996.

TIBET

The Gyuto Monks: Tibetan Tantric  Choir , Windham Hill Records WD-2001, Stanford, Californie, USA, 1987.

The Gyuto Monks: Freedom Chants from the Roof of the World , RYKODISC RCD 20113, Salem, Maryland, USA, 1989.

Tibet: The Heart of Dharma/ Buddha’s Teachings and the Music They Inspired ,Ellipsis Arts 4050, New York, USA, 1996.